Courses of Instruction

Key to course list A schedule of the hours and places at which various classes are to meet will be posted online at

Courses designated “a” meet in the fall term only.

Courses designated “b” meet in the spring term only.

Courses designated “a,b” are offered in both the fall and spring terms.

Courses designated “a–b” are yearlong courses. Credit for these courses is granted only after completion of two terms of work.

Courses designated NP are nonperformance courses.

Courses designated P/F will be graded on a Pass/Fail basis.

Courses designated Group A, B, or C qualify as distribution requirements in these groups.

Musicianship and Theory

MUS 500a–b, 501a–b, Introductory Hearing and Analysis 2 credits in the fall; 4 credits in the spring. Group A. See MUS 502a, 503b, for description. Both terms must be completed to fulfill the degree requirement. Does not count as a nonperformance elective. Enrollment by placement exam. Richard Gard

MUS 502a, 503a, Hearing and Analysis I 4 credits. Group A. This course develops aural and analytic skills through the exploration of a variety of musical styles, with and without score. The overall goal is to hear and articulate the effect of compositional choices and then to directly connect this understanding to performance. A short, significant composition is a requirement, and these compositions are performed. One of the sections is a degree requirement. Does not count as a nonperformance elective. Enrollment by placement exam. Richard Gard

MUS 610a, Score Reading and Analysis 4 credits. NP. Group A. The basics of score reading and analysis through music from the Baroque and classical periods. Developing clef; transposing skills at the keyboard; seeing and hearing abilities. Permission of the instructor required; enrollment limited to five. William Boughton

MUS 658a/MUSI 319a, Twentieth-Century Music: Ear Training and Analysis 4 credits. NP. Group A. This course attempts to develop students’ ability to recognize and generate structures and processes particular to music of the twentieth century and to apply them in analysis of short pieces. The course makes use of musical examples by Schoenberg, Bartók, Debussy, Stravinsky, Webern, and others. Reading, singing, memorizing, and manipulation of these excerpts are among the course’s central activities, which also include singing (and playing), dictation, identification, improvisation, and, above all, recognition. Enrollment limited to thirteen. Michael Friedmann

MUS 660a, Analysis from a Schenkerian Perspective 4 credits. NP. Group A. This class is both an analysis and a history class, focusing on Schenker’s theory of harmony and the possibilities it provided for insight into music of the classical period. Students learn how to graph pieces and are expected to complete weekly analysis assignments. We also discuss the limitations of this theory, both in its exclusion of music in any other style period than that of the classical era, but also in its starkly reductive approach. Conversely, does it offer us tools to understand a more expanded repertoire than Schenker envisioned? Can we apply its principles to music currently or recently written—or music of the Baroque and before? Primary texts are Allen Forte and Steven Gilbert’s Introduction to Schenkerian Analysis and Allen Cadwallader and David Gagné’s Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach. Hannah Lash

MUS 710b, Score Reading and Analysis II 4 credits. NP. Group A. Developing score reading and analysis through the Romantic and modern periods in playing, listening, understanding historical perspectives, and hearing. Class work includes a final paper, as well as playing scores at the piano. Permission of the instructor required; enrollment limited to five. William Boughton


MUS 515a,b, Improvisation at the Organ I 2 credits. This course in beginning organ improvisation explores a variety of harmonization techniques, with a strong focus on formal structure (binary and ternary forms, rondo, song form). Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to seven minutes on a submitted theme. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 529a, Introduction to Conducting 4 credits. A study of the art of conducting through analysis and practice of scores from the Baroque and classical periods. Developing baton technique and aural and listening skills. Assignments include preparation of scores, weekly practice in conducting exercises, and score-reading skills. A playing ensemble is made up of participants in the class. A final examination in score reading, analysis, and conducting. Permission of the instructor required; enrollment limited. William Boughton

MUS 530b, Intermediate Conducting 4 credits. Development of techniques covered in MUS 529a through the Romantic and classical periods (YSO repertoire). Developing score reading at the keyboard. Building memory of scores. A playing ensemble is made up of participants in the class. Prerequisite: MUS 529a. Permission of the instructor required. Enrollment limited to ten, determined by audition. William Boughton

MUS 531a–b, 631a–b, Repertory Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A reading chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. The chorus reads, studies, and sings a wide sampling of choral literature. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 532a–b, 632a–b, Repertory Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Repertory Chorus, preparing and conducting a portion of a public concert each term. Open only to choral conducting majors. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 533a–b, 633a–b, Seminar in Piano Literature and Interpretation 4 credits per term. For piano majors. Piano faculty and guests

MUS 534b, Collaborative Piano: Instrumental 2 credits. A course for piano majors, intended to broaden their experience and to provide them with the skills necessary to prepare sonatas and accompaniments. A number of selected instrumental sonatas are covered, as well as the problems involved in dealing with orchestral reductions and piano parts to virtuoso pieces. Sight reading and difficulties related to performing with specific instruments are also addressed. Students are encouraged to bring works to class that they are preparing for recitals. Elizabeth Sawyer Parisot

MUS 535a–b, 635a–b, Recital Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. It serves as the choral ensemble for four to five degree recitals per year. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 536a–b, 636a–b, Recital Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Second- and third-year students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Recital Chorus, preparing and conducting their degree recitals. Open to choral conducting majors only. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 537b, Collaborative Piano: Voice 2 credits. A course designed for pianists, focusing on the skills required for vocal accompanying and coaching. The standard song and operatic repertoire is emphasized. Sight-reading, techniques of transposition, figured bass, and effective reduction of operatic materials for the recreation of orchestral sounds at the piano are included in the curriculum. Faculty

MUS 538a–b, 638a–b, 738a–b, Cello Ensemble 2 credits per term. An exploration of the growing literature for cello ensemble emphasizing chamber music and orchestral skills as well as stylistic differences. Performances planned during the year. Required of all cello majors. Faculty

MUS 540a–b, 640a–b, 740a–b, 840a–b, Individual Instruction in the Major 4 credits per term. Individual instruction of one hour per week throughout the academic year, for majors in performance, conducting, and composition. Faculty

MUS 541a,b, 641a,b, 741a,b, Secondary Instrumental, Compositional, Conducting, and Vocal Study 2 credits per term. P/F. All students enrolled in secondary lessons can receive instruction in either voice or piano. In addition, YSM keyboard majors may take secondary organ or harpsichord, and YSM violinists may take secondary viola. Any other students who wish to take secondary lessons in any other instruments must petition Richard Gard by e-mail ( no later than September 14, 2018, for the fall term and January 18, 2019, for the spring term. Students who are not conducting majors may take only one secondary instrument per term. YSM students who wish to take secondary lessons must register for the course and request a teacher using the online form for graduate students found at ; the availability of a secondary lessons teacher is not guaranteed until the form is received and a teacher assigned by the director of lessons. Secondary instruction in choral conducting and orchestral conducting is only available with permission of the instructor and requires as prerequisites MUS 565a for secondary instruction in choral conducting, and both MUS 529a and 530b for secondary instruction in orchestral conducting. Students of the Yale Divinity School, School of Drama, and School of Art may also register as above for secondary lessons and will be charged $200 per term for these lessons. Questions may be sent by e-mail to the director, Richard Gard (

MUS 542a–b, 642a–b, 742a–b, The Philharmonia Orchestra of Yale and New Music New Haven 2 credits per term. Participation, as assigned by the faculty, is required of all orchestral students. In addition to regular participation in Philharmonia, students are assigned to New Music New Haven, to groups performing music by Yale composers, and to other ensembles as required. Faculty

MUS 543a–b, 643a–b, 743a–b, Chamber Music 2 credits per term. Required of instrumental majors (except organ) in each term of enrollment. Enrollment includes participation in an assigned chamber music ensemble as well as performance and attendance in master classes and chamber music concerts. Faculty and guests

MUS 544a–b, 644a–b, 744a–b, Seminar in the Major 2 credits per term. An examination of a wide range of problems relating to the area of the major. Specific requirements may differ by department. At the discretion of each department, seminar requirements can be met partially through off-campus field trips and/or off-campus fieldwork, e.g., performance or teaching. Required of all School of Music students except pianists who take 533, 633, 733. Faculty

MUS 546a–b, 646a–b, 746a–b, Yale Camerata 2 credits per term. Open to all members of the University community by audition, the Yale Camerata presents several performances throughout the year that explore choral literature from all musical periods. Members of the ensemble should have previous choral experience and be willing to devote time to the preparation of music commensurate with the Camerata’s vigorous rehearsal and concert schedule. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 571a–b, 671a–b, 771a–b, Yale Schola Cantorum 1 credit per term. Specialist chamber choir for the development of advanced ensemble skills and expertise in demanding solo roles (in music before 1750 and from the last one hundred years). Enrollment required for voice majors enrolled through the Institute of Sacred Music. David Hill

MUS 605a, Performing Oratorio: A Look at the Major Repertoire 2 credits. This class provides a practical, performance-based introduction to the major oratorio repertoire from Vivaldi to Adams. Specific works are studied from a literary and musical point of view, with weekly presentations of prepared selections. Issues of editions, text setting, musical style, theatrical presentation, and performance history are discussed, while working on excerpts (arias and ensembles) from the repertoire list. The conductor/soloist relationship, and the relative musical requirements of each in various repertoires, are explored. Open to singers, conductors, instrumentalists, and composers. Open to undergraduates (half-credit) with permission of the instructor. Judith Malafronte

MUS 615a,b, Improvisation at the Organ II 2 credits. This course explores modal improvisation, focusing on the composition techniques of Charles Tournemire and Olivier Messiaen. Students learn to improvise five-movement chant-based suites (Introit-Offertoire-Elevation-Communion-Pièce Terminale), versets, and a variety of free works using late-twentieth-century language. Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to seven minutes on a submitted theme. Prerequisite: MUS 515. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 656a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills I 2 credits. In this course, students gain a deeper understanding of and appreciation for musical genres, both those familiar to them and those different from their own, and learn basic techniques for their application in church service playing. Students learn to play hymns, congregational songs, service music, and anthems from a variety of sources, including music from the liturgical and free church traditions, including the Black Church experience. Hymn playing, with an emphasis on methods of encouraging congregational singing, is the principal focus of the organ instruction, but there is also instruction in chant and anthem accompaniment, including adapting a piano reduction to the organ. In the gospel style, beginning with the piano, students are encouraged to play by ear, using their aural skills in learning gospel music. This training extends to the organ, in the form of improvised introductions and varied accompaniments to hymns of all types. We seek to accomplish these goals by active participation and discussion in class. When not actually playing in class, students are encouraged to sing to the accompaniment of the person at the keyboard, to further their experience of singing with accompaniment, and to give practical encouragement to the person playing. Prerequisite: graduate-level organ and piano proficiency. Walden Moore

MUS 657a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills II 2 credits. The subject matter is the same as for MUS 656, but some variety is offered in the syllabus on a two-year cycle to allow second-year students to take the course without duplicating all of the means by which the playing techniques are taught. Walden Moore

MUS 677a, Continuo Realization and Performance 4 credits. Acquisition of practical skills necessary for a competent and expressive performance from thorough-bass. Learning of figures, honing of voice-leading skills, and investigation of various historical and national styles of continuo playing as well as relevant performance practice issues. Regular class performances with an instrumentalist or singer. Open to pianists, harpsichordists, organists, and conductors. Arthur Haas

MUS 678b, Advanced Continuo Realization and Performance 4 credits. Practical and theoretical application of national and period styles from the entire Baroque era, 1600–1750. Students prepare and perform both unrealized and unfigured basses of vocal and instrumental sacred and secular literature from early Italian music through to the late Baroque and the empfindsamer style. Musical examples are supplemented with primary and secondary source readings. Prerequisite: MUS 677a or permission of the instructor. Arthur Haas

MUS 715a,b, Improvisation at the Organ III 2 credits. This course explores the improvisation of full organ symphony in four movements, Tryptique (Rondo-Aria-Theme/variations), improvisation on visual images, text-based improvisation, and silent film. Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to ten minutes on a submitted theme. Prerequisite: MUS 615. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 815a,b, Improvisation at the Organ IV 2 credits. This course explores the improvisation of contrapuntal forms including partimento fugue, stylus fantasticus, fugue d’école, and choral preludes. Prerequisite: MUS 715. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 915a,b, Improvisation at the Organ V 2 credits. The focus of this class is on using composed models as sources of inspiration for organ improvisation (works of Mendelssohn, Reger, Brahms, Alain, Franck, etc.). The class concludes with an Improvisation Showcase, with the student improvising up to ten minutes. Final recital required (thirty minutes). Prerequisites: MUS 815 and permission of the instructor. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 1015a,b, Improvisation at the Organ VI 2 credits. The focus of this class is on French Baroque improvisation and silent film accompaniment. The class concludes with an Improvisation Showcase, with the student improvising up to ten minutes. Final recital required (thirty minutes). Prerequisites: MUS 915 and permission of the instructor. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 1115a,b, Improvisation at the Organ VII 2 credits. The focus of this class is on improvisation at the organ at the very highest level. Included improvisation forms are liturgical, large-scale nineteenth-century forms, tone poems, and Messiaen’s harmonic language. The class concludes with a solo recital; musical themes for the recital are given to the student one hour in advance. Final recital required (thirty minutes). Prerequisites: MUS 1015 and permission of the instructor. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 1215a,b, Improvisation at the Organ VIII 2 credits. The focus of this class is on improvisation at the organ at the very highest level. Included improvisation forms are variations, atonal, eighteenth-century, and ensemble (with vocalist or instrumentalist). The class concludes with a solo recital; musical themes for the recital are given to the student one hour in advance. Final recital required (sixty minutes). Prerequisites: MUS 1115 and permission of the instructor. Jeffrey Brillhart


MUS 555b, Composition for Performers 4 credits. NP. Group A. This class looks at music composition from various historical and philosophical perspectives, with an eye toward discovering models and ideas that allow us to write music for ourselves. With a special emphasis on the history of text setting, we write and play music for each other and critique it ourselves. All are welcome. David Lang


MUS 504a–b, 604a–b, 704a–b, Dramatic Movement for Singers 1 credit per term. Stage movement tailored specifically for singers. Physical preparation of the body through exercises that develop strength, control, and flow of movement while releasing tensions and extending the range of movement possibilities. Emphasis is placed on stage presence and movement problems as applied to specific roles, and on transferring the class experience to the stage. Required. Christopher Murrah

MUS 506a–b, 606a–b, Lyric Diction for Singers 2 credits per term. A language course designed specifically for the needs of singers. Intensive work on pronunciation, grammar, and literature throughout the term. French, German, English, Italian, Russian, and Latin are offered in alternating terms. Required. Faculty

MUS 507a–b, 607a–b, Vocal Repertoire for Singers 2 credits per term. A performance-oriented course that in successive terms surveys the French mélodie, German Lied, and Italian, American, and English art song. Elements of style, language, text, and presentation are emphasized. Required. Faculty

MUS 508a–b, 608a–b, 708a–b, Opera Workshop 3 credits per term. Encompasses musical preparation, coaching (musical and language), staging, and performance of selected scenes as well as complete roles from a wide range of operatic repertoire. Required. Doris Yarick-Cross, coaching staff, and guest music and stage directors

MUS 509a–b, 609a–b, 709a–b, Art Song Coaching for Singers 1 credit per term. Individual private coaching in the art song repertoire, in preparation for required recitals. Students are coached on such elements of musical style as phrasing, rubato, and articulation, and in English, French, Italian, German, and Spanish diction. Students are expected to bring their recital accompaniments to coaching sessions as their recital times approach. Faculty

MUS 522a–b, 622a–b, 722a–b, Acting for Singers 1 credit per term. Designed to address the specialized needs of the singing actor. Studies include technique in character analysis, together with studies in poetry as it applies to art song literature. Class work is extended in regular private coaching. ISM students are required to take two terms in their second year. Christopher Murrah

MUS 549a, Early Music Repertoire for Singers 2 credits. A survey of solo and chamber repertoire (song, madrigal, cantata, opera, oratorio, motet) from the early seventeenth century to the mid-eighteenth century. Related topics include performance practice, ornamentation, national styles, related instrumental music, research, and original sources and their modern transcriptions. Assignments emphasize practical applications such as composing ornaments, finding repertoire, and creating new editions. Offered every other year. Faculty

MUS 594a–b, Vocal Chamber Music 1 credit. This performance-based class requires a high level of individual participation each week. Grades are based on participation in and preparation for class, and two performances of the repertoire learned. Attendance is mandatory. Occasional weekend sessions and extra rehearsals during production weeks can be expected. Students are expected to learn quickly and must be prepared to tackle a sizeable amount of repertoire. James Taylor

MUS 595a–b, 695b, Performance Practice for Singers 1 credit per term. Fall term: An introduction to the major issues of historically informed performance, including notation, use of modern editions, and performance styles. Spring term: Advanced exploration of notation, performance styles, and ornamentation in specific repertoire. Open to conductors and instrumentalists with permission of the instructor. Faculty

History and Analysis

MUS 511b, Music before 1750 4 credits. NP. Group B. An overview of music before 1750 within its cultural and social contexts. The goal of the course is knowledge of the repertoire representing the major styles, genres, and composers of the period. Course requirements include six short essays, a final research project, and a final exam. Markus Rathey

MUS 512a,b, Music from 1750 to 1900 4 credits. NP. Group B. An analytic and cultural survey of music from ca. 1750 through 1900. The goal of the course is knowledge of repertoire representing the major styles, genres, and composers of the period. Readings from primary documents provide grounding in historical events, aesthetic trends, and social contexts of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century music making. Course requirements include weekly listening and reading, regular quizzes, two short music-analytic papers, a midterm examination, and a final examination. Paul Berry [F], Christin V. Thomas [Sp]

MUS 513a,b, Music since 1900 4 credits. NP. Group B. A detailed investigation of the history of musical style from ca. 1900 to the present. Issues to be considered include modernist innovations around 1910; serialism and neoclassicism in the interwar period; the avant-gardes of the 1950s and 1960s; postmodernism, neo-romanticism, and multiculturalism of the 1970s and beyond. Christin V. Thomas [F], Robert Holzer [Sp]

MUS 539b, The Motet in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 4 credits. NP. Group B. The motet was the most important vocal genre in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Composers such as Josquin Desprez, Orlando di Lasso, and Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina led the genre to its peak. In the seventeenth century, however, the genre underwent a transition. Modern genres like the concerto, monody, and solo song employed, on one hand, techniques that were developed in the motet (e.g., counterpoint), yet on the other hand, they claimed the place of the motet as the leading vocal genre in church music. The course outlines the history of the motet in the crucial time between its peak in the sixteenth century (starting with Josquin) and its transition (one might even say dissolution) into other genres in the seventeenth century (until Bach). The course combines a general overview with an in-depth study of selected composers. In addition to this analytical approach, the course looks at the religious context of this historical change of paradigm, as the transition from polyphonic music in the sixteenth century to soloistic genres in the seventeenth coincided with a change in piety around the turn of the century. Course requirements include participation in discussions, two or three short essays, a twenty-minute presentation, and a final paper of approximately fifteen pages. Markus Rathey

MUS 557b, The Symphonies of Beethoven 4 credits. NP. Group B. An analytical survey of the Beethoven symphonies in their cultural and historical context. The mature instrumental style of Haydn and Mozart serves as a point of departure for a discussion of selected movements from the nine symphonies in chronological order. Students are required to purchase economical scores. Readings are selected from Charles Rosen, Leonard Ratner, James Hepokoski, and others. Course requirements include a midterm, an analytical paper, and a final examination. Paul Hawkshaw

MUS 560b, Research and Editions 4 credits. NP. Group B. Students develop library research skills in order to locate and critically evaluate resources that will guide and support their discovery and evaluation of performing editions and recordings of musical compositions that, in the students’ opinions, best exemplify a composer’s intent. Students select a composition from the standard repertoire that is relevant to them; identify and evaluate performing editions (three maximum) and recordings (three maximum) that represent the most authoritative version as well as the least; maintain a research journal by way of weekly course assignments and essays; build an annotated bibliography of resources used; and provide documented findings to support the evaluations and articulate the reasons for their selections clearly, both in writing and as a final presentation for the class. Ruthann B. McTyre

MUS 567a, The Ballets Russes 4 credits. NP. Group B. This course follows the evolution of the Ballets Russes, from its origins at the turn of the twentieth century as part of the Parisian “World of Art” exhibitions, in which Sergei Diaghilev imported contemporary art and experimental opera and dance productions from Russia, through its prime years (1909 to 1929) as an established ballet company, and ending in the company’s eventual breaking apart into groups settling in the United States and Monte Carlo. We further examine the subsequent impact of that splitting apart on the contemporary dance, music, and art scenes in the United States. The 1909 to 1929 years are the primary focus of the course, with an emphasis on the musical masterworks that were born of Diaghilev’s vision: works by Debussy, Milhaud, Poulenc, Prokofiev, Ravel, Satie, Respighi, Strauss, and of course, Stravinsky, among many others. We examine how Diaghilev brought together many of the most influential artists of the time, such as Braque, Picasso, Chanel, Matisse, Derain, Miró, de Chirico, Dali, and Cocteau, to collaborate with these composers. Students are given a brief primer on ballet and become familiar with the work of the important choreographers associated with the Ballets Russes, such as Michel Fokine, Vaslav Nijinksy (as both dancer and choreographer), Léonide Massine, and George Balanchine. Course requirements include a midterm, a final exam, and a paper. Christopher Theofanidis

MUS 572b, Analysis of Music from the Composers’ Perspective 4 credits. NP. Group B. This course is designed to provide composers (and others interested in composition) with the opportunity to evaluate and analyze important musical compositions from a creator’s point of view. Works of music have been analyzed by theorists, musicologists, ethnomusicologists, performers, and audiences for their own purposes. The goal of this course is to explore the decisive musical choices that remain after accounting for the contexts and constraints of theory, history, and sociology. We attempt to address the significance and character of what, given the histories and theories of music, is finally “composed” by a composer. Selected compositions are discussed and analyzed. The class includes listening, lectures, and discussions, with readings and analysis from prepared scores (available for purchase) and reserved materials. Attendance is monitored. Grades are determined primarily by a midterm and final exam. Enrollment limited to sixteen. Martin Bresnick

MUS 577b, History of Opera 4 credits. NP. Group B. An overview of the historical development of opera from its inception through the twentieth century, with particular emphasis placed on the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Through an exploration of scores, libretti, staging manuals, primary source documents, and secondary literature, students develop deep readings of characters, operas, and productions in order to unlock meaningful elements of historical canonic works for modern-day audiences. Through interrogating the interplay between the constituent elements of an operatic text (music, libretto, and staging), students develop a flexible and nuanced approach to technical and interpretive challenges posed by the operatic genre. Central composers include Mozart, Verdi, Puccini, Wagner, Donizetti, Rossini, Bellini, Handel, Bizet, Monteverdi, Britten, Strauss, Gounod, and Massenet. Parallel concerns include gender, staging, technology, and reception. Course requirements include weekly listening and reading, four short papers (1–5 pages), occasional oral presentations, and a final annotated bibliography. Christin V. Thomas

MUS 582a, French Music in the Early Twentieth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. An overview of French music from the fin-de-siècle though World War II. This course explores the articulation, development, and cultivation of modern French musical styles in the early twentieth century, particularly in contradistinction to prevalent Germanic compositional models and in relation to American and Russian musical trends. Through close engagement with selected repertoire, students develop a flexible, nuanced, and stylistically sensitive approach to technical and interpretive challenges posed by works from a variety of genres, including solo piano, art song, chamber music, opera, and ballet, as well as orchestral and choral works. Key composers include Debussy, Ravel, Poulenc, Fauré, and Saint-Saëns, alongside others such as Boulanger, Honegger, Messiaen, Tailleferre, Milhaud, and Franck. Repertoire is chosen in part according to students’ interests and current performance projects. Additional topics include women in music and the advent of jazz. Course requirements include weekly listening and reading, four program and liner notes, occasional oral presentations, and a final annotated bibliography. Christin V. Thomas

MUS 586a, The Oratorio in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 4 credits. NP. Group B. Opera and oratorio emerged almost simultaneously as large-scale musical genres at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In spite of significant differences (staging, subjects, etc.), the two genres depend on the same musical devices as recitative, aria, and movements for choir. However, the oratorio is more than just the sacred “sister” of the opera. It grew out of the tradition of the medieval religious drama, the tradition of chanting biblical texts during the liturgy, the sacred madrigal, and extra-liturgical devotional practices. The course traces the history of the oratorio from its beginnings to the time of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel. It explores the social and religious functions of the oratorio over a span of some 150 years and analyzes the compositional techniques employed by the composers to create musical drama without being able to stage it. Markus Rathey

MUS 593b, Analysis of Music since 1960 4 credits. NP. Group B. This course in the analysis of contemporary repertoire focuses on helping students gain a thorough understanding of certain pieces written by living or recently deceased composers, ranging from Sofia Gubaidulina’s Feast during a Plague and Mauricio Kagel’s Les idées fixes and Musik für Renaissance-Instrumente, to selected piano pieces of Frederic Rzewski. The goal is to become flexible using analytical tools that are fluid enough to be sensitive to each work, in order to arrive at a deep and thorough understanding of each piece. It is impossible to use only one analytical method when considering contemporary music, because there is no common syntax among pieces that would allow for a descriptive theory. The course therefore presents various ways of analyzing non-tonal music. We talk about a range of tools, from a modified post-Schenkerian theory of linearity and directionality, to various strands of Neo-Riemannian theory as presented by David Lewin, Richard Cohn, and others. Recent work by Alexander Rehding is touched upon, and we visit selections from The Oxford Handbook of Neo-Riemannian Music Theories. We also read, among other analyses, Lewin’s Musical Form and Transformation. The main goal, however, is to develop our own ways of thinking about and understanding contemporary music. So while readings of existing analyses and methods for analysis prove useful in promoting fluency with critical and connective thinking, students are challenged to be adaptive in their methods to respond to specific contexts and syntaxes, which can change not only piece to piece, but within a single work. Hannah Lash

MUS 598b, The Piano Trio, 1785–1945: Form, Texture, Affect 4 credits. NP. Group B. A study of form, texture, and affect in piano trios from the origins of the genre until the end of World War II. Beginning with examples from the late eighteenth century, the course charts a path through some of the most important developments of the next 160 years: chromatic harmony, formal and temporal experimentation, post-tonal idioms, and narrative and programmatic content. A parallel concern is the composer’s response to evolving instruments and changing performance practices. Repertoire is chosen in part according to students’ interests and current performance projects. Among composers addressed are Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Schubert, Wieck, Schumann, Brahms, Dvorak, Ravel, Clarke, Copland, and Shostakovich. Course requirements include weekly listening and short readings, three brief response papers (1–4 pages), occasional oral presentations, and a final oral examination on topics chosen by the student. Paul Berry

MUS 611a, Difference in and around the Classical Canon 4 credits. NP. Group B. Central to the mission of the Yale School of Music and the activities of its students is engagement with the classical canon, a closely interrelated body of prestigious musical works spanning several centuries of Western European history, from the eighteenth century through the twentieth. Within the academy and among devotees of classical music, the canon is often treated as transcendently valuable, essentially closed, and increasingly under threat—a fixed tradition to be defended against the forces of change. This class invites students to devise alternative approaches to the canon by exploring the implications of difference, both in and around the works they have already heard and played. Difference in race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, national and political affiliation, disability, and educational access: despite the canon’s well-deserved reputation for cultural homogeneity, all these types of difference have found eloquent expression in the standard repertoire and in the compositional practices of long-famous composers. This class attunes our ears and music-analytic approaches to the implications of difference in works of Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Dvorˇak, Puccini, Ives, Stravinsky, and others at the heart of the classical canon, providing new insights into music we thought we knew. At the same time, we also venture outside the confines of the canon as it is typically construed. Across three centuries, we explore music written by women, people of color, and others traditionally excluded from the canon, from female Europeans to enslaved Africans and their descendants in America; and we investigate historical perspectives that complement the canon’s traditional emphasis on the compositional act by examining the accounts of performers, patrons, suffragists, novelists, and poets. Along the way, we are guided by concise readings in recent musicological scholarship as well as race theory, feminist theory, queer theory, disability studies, communication theory, and other disciplines. The goal of the course is neither to defend the canon nor to debunk it, but rather to reimagine its boundaries and reassess its implications for the musicians who will carry it forward. Repertoire and directions of study are chosen in significant part according to students’ interests and current performance or compositional projects. Class sessions are discussion-driven, and open, respectful dialogue is encouraged. Course requirements include daily listening and score study, brief readings from both historical and scholarly sources, three brief response papers (1–4 pages), occasional oral presentations (3–5 minutes), and a final oral examination on topics selected by the student. Paul Berry

MUS 614a, Mozart Chamber Music: Analysis and Performance 4 credits. NP. Group B. The class relates analysis to performance of three to four Mozart chamber works such as either/both of the piano quartets, the quintet for piano and winds, sonatas for piano and violin, piano trios, clarinet trio. Issues such as articulation, harmonic design, phrase structure, and hypermeter provide focus. Light readings include Marty’s book on Mozart tempi and Charles Rosen’s books. A short paper is required. All students are required to know the scores of all works studied and to participate in discussions. The class culminates in a concert at term’s end. Open to pianists, violinists, violists, cellists, oboists, clarinetists, bassoonists, and French hornists by audition/interview. Michael Friedmann

MUS 626a,b, Rhetoric and Early Instrumental Performance 4 credits. NP. Group B. How are we to perform, today, music from the Baroque era (ca. 1600–1750)? The diverse styles of the instrumental and vocal music composed during this period elicit wide and quite differing responses from instrumentalists and singers attuned to pre-Classic and Romantic performance practices. In this course, which is centered on both performance and discussion, we take in the many possibilities available to the performer of music composed in this period. Topics include Baroque sound, ornamentation, vibrato, text-music relationships, improvisation, tempo and meter, rhythmic alteration, dynamics, pitch, tuning and temperament, and basso continuo. We compare period instruments to their modern counterparts, and we read and discuss primary and secondary source documents. Students learn how to approach modern editions critically and use primary sources to guide their performance-practice decisions. We explore detailed musical issues within larger historical and critical contexts—for example, the importance of national preferences (e.g., dance in France, rhetoric in Germany). At the same time, we look at the ideologies of the early music movement as it has taken shape in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The success of this class hinges in large part on the quality of student preparation and participation. Students should be prepared to perform often on their respective instruments; they will be coached on various aspects of Baroque works from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Small oral reports throughout the term on aspects of performance practice, as well as a larger oral presentation on a particular piece at the end of the term, are required. Arthur Haas

MUS 628a, The Operas of Giuseppe Verdi 4 credits. NP. Group B. A survey of the operas of Giuseppe Verdi. Special attention is given to the interaction of music and drama, as well as to the larger contexts of his works in nineteenth-century Italian history. Regular attendance and informed participation in classroom discussion, in-class presentations, two papers. Four excused absences are permitted; more than four absences results in severe consequences for the final grade. Robert Holzer

MUS 664a, The Symphony and the Sacred in the Nineteenth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. The course describes the development of the metaphysical interpretation of music in the nineteenth century and shows how composers in the late eighteenth century (e.g., J. Haydn and J.M. Kraus), in the first half of the nineteenth century (e.g., Beethoven and Mendelssohn), and the late nineteenth century have used quotations and allusions to create a “religious mood” in their symphonies. Markus Rathey

MUS 852b, D.M.A. Seminar I 4 credits. NP. Group B. Required of all D.M.A. candidates during the spring term of their first year in residence. The study of a specific topic or topics provides candidates with expanded opportunities for research. Paul Berry

MUS 853a, D.M.A. Seminar II 8 credits. NP. Group B. Required of all D.M.A. candidates during the fall term of their second year in residence. An introduction to the problems and methodology of musicology and theory. In consultation with individual advisers, candidates work toward completion of a thesis draft. D.M.A. written comprehensive examinations take place during this term. Robert Holzer

MUS 854b, D.M.A. Colloquium 4 credits. NP. Group B. Required of all D.M.A. candidates during the spring term of their second year in residence. Class meetings and sessions with advisers aimed at completing the thesis. Theses are normally due the last Friday of March, and public presentations take place in April. D.M.A. qualifying oral examinations take place at the end of this term. Robert Holzer

Special Studies

MUS 521a, English Language Skills 4 credits. NP. Group C. This course is designed for international students in the Yale School of Music who are at a basic or intermediate level of English. Instruction includes the refinement of skills such as writing, speaking, reading, and grammar. Attendance is required at all sessions. Serena Blocker

MUS 550a, Music Technology for the Practicing Musician 2 credits. NP. Group C. An overview of pertinent technological developments and their historical contexts. Designed for students who have had little or no prior experience in this area. The discussion groups for this course are hands-on workshops. These provide an opportunity for students to meet in small groups and gain firsthand experience using the digital systems in the Center for Studies in Music Technology (CSMT). Students are expected to attend one workshop per week. Jack Vees

MUS 551b, Studio Techniques and Contemporary Popular Music 2 credits. NP. Group C. This course combines a detailed presentation of the various elements of the Center for Studies in Music Technology (CSMT) studios along with a survey of popular music that has been shaped by the studio environment. The works of artists from Abba to Zappa and the recordings of performers from Les Paul to Brian Eno are typical of the works presented. The discussion groups are hands-on workshops that provide an opportunity for students to meet in small groups and gain firsthand experience using the digital systems in CSMT. Students are expected to attend one workshop per week. Preference given to second-year students. Jack Vees

MUS 559a,b, Jazz Improvisation 2 credits. NP. Group C. In this course, students study basic, intermediate, and advanced concepts of jazz improvisation and learn the essentials of the jazz language through solo transcriptions and analysis. During the course of the term, students learn how to use vocabulary (or musical phrases) and a variety of improvisational devices and techniques over common chords and chord progressions. Upon completion of the course, students will have a deeper understanding of what it takes to become a great improviser, what to practice and how to practice it, and how to go about expanding their jazz vocabulary in order to naturally develop a unique improvisational voice. Students are required to bring their instruments to class. A basic understanding of jazz nomenclature and some experience improvising are advised. Grades are based on the completion of solo transcription assignments, individual development, and attendance. The instructor’s permission is required for enrollment beyond one term. Wayne Escoffery

MUS 565a, Elements of Choral Technique 4 credits. NP. Group A. An exploration of conducting technique, rehearsal technique, score analysis, and repertoire for the choral conductor, this course is designed for students who are not majoring in choral conducting but are interested in learning the essentials of choral technique. Repertoire from the sixteenth century to the present is explored. Jeffrey Douma

MUS 578b, Music, Service, and Society 4 credits. NP. Group C. What is a musician’s response to the condition of the world? Do musicians have an obligation and an opportunity to serve the needs of the world with their musicianship? At a time of crisis for the classical music profession, with a changing commercial landscape, a shrinking audience base, and a contraction in the number of professional orchestras, how does a young musician construct a career today? Are we looking at a dying art form or a moment of reinvigoration? In this course we develop a response to these questions, and we explore the notion that the classical musician, the artist, is an important public figure with a critical role to play in society. The course includes inquiry into a set of ideas in philosophy of aesthetics; a discussion about freedom, civil society, and ways that art can play a role in readying people for democracy; discussion on philosophy of education as it relates to the question of positive social change; and an exploration of musical and artistic initiatives that have been particularly focused on a positive social impact. Enrollment limited to twenty. Sebastian Ruth

MUS 621a, Careers in Music: Creating Value through Innovative Artistic Projects 2 credits. NP. Group C. This course teaches entrepreneurship and leadership through innovative, collaborative, term-long projects. Working from the psychological framework of the growth mindset and emotional intelligence, students articulate their artistic missions and purposes and then divide up into collaborative project groups based on common missions. They learn how to innovate using the creativity problem-solving process and design thinking. They create, pitch, and implement artistic projects in an environment that encourages taking risks and learning from experience. Students also learn the art of collaboration including communication skills and leveraging communication styles, conflict management, and effective persuasion and presentation. The class combines instruction with group discussion, coaching, and feedback from fellow students, faculty, and professional and alumni mentors. Course requirements include successful completion of the project, weekly readings and assignments, a final paper, and in-class presentations. Enrollment is limited to sixteen and is by permission of the instructor. Attendance is mandatory with one excused absence. Astrid Baumgardner

MUS 690a,b, Independent Study Project 2 credits per term. NP. Second- or third-year students with the consent of the deputy dean may elect, for one term only, to pursue individual study in specialized areas of interest, under the supervision of faculty members. An outline for proposed individual study must be completed and approved prior to the beginning of the term in which the student expects to pursue the special study. Forms are available in the Office of the Registrar. Faculty

MUS 999a–b, D.M.A. Dissertation 0 credits. Faculty

Yale Institute of Sacred Music

MUS 519a–b, 619a–b, 719a–b, Colloquium 1 credit per term. NP. P/F. Participation in seminars led by faculty and guest lecturers on topics concerning theology, music, worship, and related arts. Counts as one NP in the fourth term. Required of all Institute of Sacred Music students. Martin Jean

Department of Music

YSM students are encouraged to explore appropriate intermediate and advanced undergraduate courses and graduate courses offered by the Department of Music. Permission of the instructor may be required for enrollment.