Departments and Sections

This section provides information for all departments and some sections in the School of Medicine.

Courses designated a meet in the fall term only. Courses designated b meet in the spring term only. Courses enclosed in brackets are not offered in the current academic year. Additional information on clinical elective and subinternship experiences is available at https://medicine.yale.edu/education/curriculum/advancedtraining/clinicalelectives.

Faculty listings reflect approved appointments effective April 30, 2018.

Anesthesiology

TMP 3, 203.785.2802

http://medicine.yale.edu/anesthesiology

Professors P.G. Barash (Emeritus), H. Benveniste, C.A. Brandt (Emergency Medicine), F.R. Braveman (Emeritus), J.G. Collins (Emeritus), J. Ehrenwerth (Emeritus), M. Fontes, T.M. Halaszynski, P.M. Heerdt, R.L. Hines (Chair), L.M. Kitahata (Emeritus), C.J. Kopriva (Emeritus), R. Lagasse, R.H. LaMotte, J. Lichtor, L. Meng, P.L. Miller (Emeritus), L.E. Niklason, T.H. Oh (Emeritus), A.C. Perrino, T.D. Rafferty (Emeritus), S.H. Rosenbaum, W. Rosenblatt, K.H. Shelley, R.N. Shiffman (Pediatrics), D.G. Silverman (Emeritus), R.S. Sinatra (Emeritus), N. Vadivelu

Associate Professors S. Akhtar, A.A. Alian, M.M. Burg (Medicine), J. Charchaflieh, S. Garwood, V. Kurup, L.L. Maerz (Surgery), G.F. McCloskey, A.D. Oprea, W.M. Popescu, R. Schonberger, J.J. Schwartz, J. Sherman

Assistant Professors C. Al Haddadin, M. Ancuta, S.I. Assaad, T. Banack, A. Bardia, M.E. Blessing, E. Bukanova, S. Chatterjee, N. Chawla, M. Cortes, R. Deshpande, P. Effraim, A. Eltorai, J. Feinleib, C. Fernandez Robles, L. Freudzon, D.J. Gaal, A. Gonzalez-Fiol, L.E. Helgeson, K. Hernandez, A. Hernandez Rodriguez, A. Herrera, T. Hickey, N.F. Holt, M.G. Hrycelak, D. Kinney, L.H. Kwan, K. Labib, J. Li, A.M. Lobo, D. Lombardo, A. Malik, V. Matei, J. McCarthy, H. Mikhael, V. Mishra, T. Myslajek, C. Noto, J. Oliver, L. Oliver, M. Punjala, J. Quick, S. Rao, A. Razo Vazquez, I. Rock, R.M. Romero, M.J. Rose, P. Rubin, A. Ruskis, R.G. Stout, P. Tankha, H.E. Tantawy, J. Tao, D.M. Thomas, P. Trigo-Blanco, J. Zafar, Q. Zhu

Instructors C.L. Almeida, K. Balastriere, C. Bartels, R.S. Brunetti, L. Calo, E. Cardone, T. Cooke, M.S. Cosgrove, S.A. DeMaio, M. Dwyer, C. Garceau, O. Geismar, C. Gibbs, N. Guay, J. Heath, L. Hedgepath, C. Ippolito, K. Jockel, A.A. Lamacchia, A. Lee, H. Manzolillo, K. McClintock, M. Michaud, M. Montefusco, C. Natividad Le, D. O’Mara, D.D. Pannella, A. Phillips, J. Roman, J. Sacco, J. Zacharias

Research Scientists N. Rajeevan, F.G. Sayward

Associate Research Scientists P.H. Addy, J. Erdos, S. Gruenbaum, T. Kawecki, A. Le, H. Lee, A. Lisi, P.G. Mutalik, H. Qian, H. Rajeevan, C. Ramsey, R. Wang

Associate Clinical Professor S.B. Stone

Assistant Clinical Professors R. Aouad, S. Dabu-Bondoc, J. Farmer, M. Leonova, P. Mancini, R. Marando, P.M. Meeks, J.T. Pan, N. Saidi, C. Schulten, R. Schulten, J. Sramcik, I. Vaitkeviciute, T. Wong, G.X. Zhou

Clinical Instructors C. Calabrese, E.M. Chacko, J. Dorsey, R.P. Hogan, E. Jacobs, M.A. Maguire, L. Orozco, M. Paulin, D. Reilly, J. Rodriguez

Lecturers C.A. Baer, J. Bates, V.N. Garla, B. Kaplan, S. LaCoursiere, P. Nadkarni, G. Sendlewski, Y. Solad

ANES 104, Anesthesiology Advanced Clinical Elective Individualized full-time program of instruction in anesthesia subspecialties, including cardiovascular, neurosurgical, obstetrical, and pediatric anesthesia. One or two students every four weeks. Director: S. Akhtar

ANES 141, Anesthesiology Laboratory Research Elective Students interested in laboratory research projects focused in the neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of the sensations of pain and itch, and in vascular biology, are encouraged to speak with department faculty. Development of individual research projects is encouraged as well; contact D.G. Silverman. Students who are interested in complementary approaches to pain management, such as acupuncture, should contact S.-M. Wang. One student every four weeks; additional time recommended. Director: D.G. Silverman

ANES 142, Anesthesiology Clinical Research Elective Students are welcome to inquire about participating in ongoing research by the department faculty involving clinical responses to drugs affecting cardiopulmonary, central nervous, and autonomic nervous system; noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring; perioperative coagulation; and other topics. Development of individual research projects is encouraged as well; contact D.G. Silverman. Students who are interested in complementary approaches to pain management, such as acupuncture, should contact S.-M. Wang. Those interested in neurophysiology should consult with R.H. LaMotte or C. Ma. Those interested in topics in vascular and stem cell biology should contact L.E. Niklason. One or two students every four weeks. Director: L.E. Niklason

Cell Biology

SHM C207, 203.737.5603

http://cellbiology.yale.edu

Professors C.G. Burd, M.J. Caplan (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), L. Cooley (Genetics), P. Cresswell (Immunobiology), P. De Camilli, J.E. Galán (Microbial Pathogenesis), F. Gorelick, C. Hashimoto (Emeritus), J.D. Jamieson, D.S. Krause (Laboratory Medicine), T.L. Lentz (Emeritus), H. Lin, V.T. Marchesi (Pathology), M.H. Nathanson, K. Neugebauer (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), K.M. Reinisch, J.E. Rothman (Chair), M.A. Schwartz (Medicine), S.L. Wolin (Emeritus)

Associate Professors J. Bewersdorf, J.S. Bogan (Medicine), D.A. Calderwood (Pharmacology), D. Colón-Ramos, S.M. Ferguson, V. Greco (Genetics), M. King, C.P. Lusk, T. Melia, C. Schlieker (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), D.K. Toomre, Y. Zhang

Assistant Professors D. Baddeley (Adjunct), J. Berro (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), S. Guo, C. Lin, M. Mariappan, X. Su, P.A. Takizawa, S. Wang (Genetics)

Research Scientists A. Ernst, S.S. Krishnakumar, X.N. Liu, C. Qiu

Associate Research Scientists S.J. An, F. Bottanelli, Y. Deng, A.R. Ferguson, L. Geng, S. Gowrishankar, K. Grushin, X. Hao, J. Hawk, F. Horenkamp, C. Hsieh, X. Hu, R. Ikegami, F. Li, N. Liu, M. Llaguno, N. Neuenkirchen, F. Pincet, H. Qi, L. Schroeder, N. Vishnoi, Z. Xi, Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, M. Zhong

CBIO 501a and 502b, Molecules to Systems This full-year course is designed to provide medical students with a current and comprehensive review of biologic structure and function at the cellular, tissue, and organ system levels. Areas covered include structure and organization of cells; regulation of the cell cycle and mitosis; protein biosynthesis and membrane targeting; cell motility and the cytoskeleton; signal transduction; cell adhesion; cell and tissue organization of organ systems. Clinical correlation sessions, which illustrate the contributions of cell biology to specific medical problems, are interspersed in the lecture schedule. Histophysiology laboratories provide practical experience with an understanding of exploring cell and tissue structure. The course is offered only to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students. P.A. Takizawa

CBIO 600a and 601b, Frontiers in Medicine A full-year graduate credit course for first-year M.D./Ph.D. students and an elective course for M.D. students, emphasizing the connections between basic and clinical science, human physiology, and disease. It parallels the content of Yale School of Medicine’s first-year courses and is designed for students who are considering a career in medical research or who choose to explore scientific topics in depth, learn about cutting-edge research, and improve their presentation skills. Discussions cover the challenges faced in research, selecting a topic, and pursuing an academic career. Select topics are presented by eminent faculty who serve as excellent role models for students’ academic careers. In most sessions, two students review relevant manuscripts under the guidance of a faculty mentor and present the material to the group. Prior to the start of class, students are required to submit questions concerning techniques and concepts that may not be clear from the assigned papers. These questions are then addressed during the presentation. Student evaluations are graded on attendance, participation in group discussions, and formal presentations. The organizational meeting/introduction is August 23 at 4:30 pm (most sessions are in Hope 203 at YSM). Enrollment limited to students who have taken or are currently taking CBIO 501a and CBIO 502b. F. Gorelick, J.S. Bogan, K. Finberg, G. Lister

CBIO 602a/MB&B 602a/MCDB 602a, Molecular Cell Biology A comprehensive introduction to the molecular and mechanistic aspects of cell biology for graduate students in all programs. Emphasizes fundamental issues of cellular organization, regulation, biogenesis, and function at the molecular level. Prerequisites: none, but some knowledge of basic cell biology and biochemistry is assumed. Students who have not taken courses in these areas can prepare by reading relevant sections in basic molecular cell biology texts. We recommend Pollard et al., Cell Biology (3rd ed., 2016), Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell (6th ed., 2014), or Lodish et al., Molecular Cell Biology (8th edition, 2016). C.P. Lusk, C.G. Burd, M.J. Caplan, P. De Camilli, N. Dimitrova, V. Horsley, M. King, T. Melia, T.D. Pollard, J.E. Rothman, M.A. Schwartz, J. Van Wolfswinkel

CBIO 603a/MCDB 603a, Seminar in Molecular Cell Biology A graduate-level seminar course in modern cell biology. The class is devoted to the reading and critical evaluation of classical and current papers. The topics are coordinated with the CBIO 602 lecture schedule. Thus, concurrent enrollment in CBIO 602 is required. M. King, D.A. Calderwood, M.J. Caplan, P. De Camilli, V. Horsley, T. Melia, T.D. Pollard, J.E. Rothman, P.A. Takizawa, J. Van Wolfswinkel

CBIO 604b, Systems Cell Biology Introduction to the organization and function of cells within complex multicellular systems as encountered in the human body. Covers major tissues and organs as well as the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous systems, with special emphasis on the molecular and cellular bases of developmental processes and human diseases. Lectures supplemented by electronic-based tutorials on the histology of tissues and organs. A. Vignery

CBIO 606b, Advanced Topics in Cell Biology This seminar course, which meets once weekly, covers advanced topics in cell biology. Each topic is spread over two or three sessions, which start with an introductory overview and are followed by a discussion of key papers led by an expert in the field. S.M. Ferguson, C.G. Burd

CBIO 611b, Vascular Cell Biology This course introduces the structure and organ-level physiology of the vascular system, then covers in greater depth the development, regulation, mechanics, and pathology of blood vessels. The major focus is on cellular and molecular mechanisms. The course includes both lectures and reading and discussion of recent literature. M.A. Schwartz

CBIO 655a/GENE 655a, Stem Cells: Biology and Application This course is designed for first-year or second-year students to learn the fundamentals of stem cell biology and to gain familiarity with current research in the field. The course is presented in a lecture and discussion format based on primary literature. Topics include stem cell concepts, methodologies for stem cell research, embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, cloning and stem cell reprogramming, and clinical applications of stem cell research. Prerequisites: undergraduate-level cell biology, molecular biology, and genetics. I.-H. Park

[CBIO 701b, Illuminating Cellular Function Introduction to the principles and practical methods of live cell imaging. Covers principles of fluorescent microscopy (including genetically encoded probes and physiological indicators), image formation, image detection, and image analysis. Includes hands-on demonstrations of state-of-the-art instrumentation, such as video-rate confocal and super-resolution “nanoscopes.”]

CBIO 900a/GENE 900a/MCDB 900a, First-Year Introduction to Research—Grant Writing and Scientific Communication Grant writing, scientific communication, and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

CBIO 901b/GENE 901b/MCDB 901b, First-Year Introduction to Research—Ethics: Scientific Integrity in Biomedical Research Ethics and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. J. Bewersdorf

CBIO 903a or b, Reading Course in Cell Biology Independent study of specific topics in cell biology through directed reading of the literature under faculty supervision. Student may choose any topic and any Yale faculty subject to approval by the Cell Biology DGS. Open to Cell Biology students, and to students in other departments with approval from their respective DGS. Term paper required. K.M. Reinisch

CBIO 911a/GENE 911a/MCDB 911a, First Laboratory Rotation First laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

CBIO 912b/GENE 912b/MCDB 912b, Second Laboratory Rotation Second laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

CBIO 913b/GENE 913b/MCDB 913b, Third Laboratory Rotation Third laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

Cellular and Molecular Physiology

SHM B147, 203.785.4041

http://medicine.yale.edu/physiology

Professors N.A. Ameen (Pediatrics), P.S. Aronson (Medicine), A. Bordey (Neurosurgery), E.L. Boulpaep (Emeritus), C. Canessa, L.G. Cantley (Medicine), M.J. Caplan (Chair), N. Carrasco, L.B. Cohen, M.E. Egan (Pediatrics), B.E. Ehrlich (Pharmacology), A. Eichmann (Medicine), B. Forbush, J.P. Geibel (Surgery), G.H. Giebisch (Emeritus), J.F. Hoffman (Emeritus), L.K. Kaczmarek (Pharmacology), G. Lister (Pediatrics), M.N. Nitabach, V.A. Pieribone, P.A. Preisig (Medicine), J. Santos-Sacchi (Surgery), G.I. Shulman (Medicine), F.J. Sigworth, C.L. Slayman (Emeritus), S. Tomita, T. Wang, F.S. Wright (Medicine), L.H. Young (Medicine), D. Zenisek, Z.J. Zhou (Ophthalmology & Visual Science)

Associate Professors N.A. Addy (Psychiatry), N. Bamford (Pediatrics), I.E. De Araujo (Psychiatry), J.B. Demb (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), T. Eid (Laboratory Medicine), S. Ishibe (Medicine), R.G. Kibbey (Medicine), J.J. Rinehart, S.K. Singh, A. Tufro (Pediatrics), X. Yang (Comparative Medicine)

Assistant Professors S. Bragiantsev, J.J. Chung, G. de Lartigue, E. Gracheva, K.T. Kahle (Neurosurgery), E. Karatekin, C. Thoreen

Senior Research Scientists E.L. Boulpaep, D.P. Zecevic

Associate Research Scientists R. Chang (Neuroscience), Y. Choi, B.A. Davis, N. Gresko, S. Meena, J. Nikolaus, Y. Noam, V. Padovano, J. Park, J. Platisa-Popovic, S. Ravera, M.A. Reyna, A. Rivetta, P. Sareen, D. Storace, M.M. Tomita, G. Vasan Chandra, J. Weng, Y. Yang, S. Zhong, J. Zhu

C&MP 550a/ENAS 550a/MCDB 550a/PHAR 550a, Physiological Systems The course develops a foundation in human physiology by examining the homeostasis of vital parameters within the body, and the biophysical properties of cells, tissues, and organs. Basic concepts in cell and membrane physiology are synthesized through exploring the function of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. The physical basis of blood flow, mechanisms of vascular exchange, cardiac performance, and regulation of overall circulatory function are discussed. Respiratory physiology explores the mechanics of ventilation, gas diffusion, and acid-base balance. Renal physiology examines the formation and composition of urine and the regulation of electrolyte, fluid, and acid-base balance. Organs of the digestive system are discussed from the perspective of substrate metabolism and energy balance. Hormonal regulation is applied to metabolic control and to calcium, water, and electrolyte balance. The biology of nerve cells is addressed with emphasis on synaptic transmission and simple neuronal circuits within the central nervous system. The special senses are considered in the framework of sensory transduction. Weekly discussion sections provide a forum for in-depth exploration of topics. Graduate students evaluate research findings through literature review and weekly meetings with the instructor. W.M. Saltzman, S. Campbell

C&MP 560b/ENAS 570b/MCDB 560b/PHAR 560b, Cellular and Molecular Physiology: Molecular Machines in Human Disease The course focuses on understanding the processes that transfer molecules across membranes at the cellular, molecular, biophysical, and physiological levels. Students learn about the different classes of molecular machines that mediate membrane transport, generate electrical currents, or perform mechanical displacement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the molecular structures of membrane proteins and their individual functions. The interactions among transport proteins in determining the physiological behaviors of cells and tissues are also stressed. Molecular motors are introduced and their mechanical relationship to cell function is explored. Students read papers from the scientific literature that establish the connections between mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins and a wide variety of human genetic diseases. F.J. Sigworth

C&MP 570b/NBIO 570b, Sensory Physiology The course provides an overview of the mammalian special sensory systems, including molecular and cellular bases of vision, audition, taste, olfaction, and somatosensation. Faculty with focus in those areas lead presentations and discussions on peripheral and central mechanisms. Psychophysical aspects of sensation are introduced. D. Zenisek, J. Santos-Sacchi, Z.J. Zhou

C&MP 600a and 601b, Medical Physiology Case Conferences Two-term course taught in groups of ten to twelve students by the same group leader(s) throughout the year. Workshop format permits students to apply basic concepts of physiology to clinical syndromes and disease processes. Students are expected to participate actively in a weekly discussion of a clinical case that illustrates principles of human physiology and pathophysiology at the whole-body, system, organ, cellular, or molecular level. Prerequisites: C&MP 550a and permission of the instructor. Credit for full year only. N. Carrasco and staff

C&MP 610a and 611b, Medical Research Scholars Program: Mentored Clinical Experience The goals of the course are to introduce MRSP students to aspects of clinically important human diseases. Students explore each disease over three one-and-one-half-hour sessions led by a clinician-scientist who is an expert in the relevant organ system. Students explore two disease processes per term. The first of the three sessions is devoted to a discussion of the clinical presentation, natural history, pathology, epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of the disease process. During this session students have the opportunity to view gross or microscopic specimens of diseased tissue in association with members of the Pathology faculty. Students are assigned readings in pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical texts to prepare for the first class session. The second session focuses on translational aspects of the disease process. Students read and present papers relevant to the molecular basis of the disease and cutting-edge approaches to its therapy. In the third session students meet with patients who have experienced the disease and/or visit and explore facilities associated with diagnosis and treatment of the disease process. Prior to the third session students receive guidance as to what they will observe and how to approach the experience; and at the end of the session, the group discusses its thoughts and impressions. Students are expected to prepare for sessions, to participate actively, and to be scrupulously respectful of patients and patient facilities. E.L. Herzog

[C&MP 620b/NBIO 610b, Fundamentals in Neurophysiology The course is designed for students who wish to gain a theoretical and practical knowledge of modern neurophysiology. Graduate students specializing in neurophysiology and non-neurophysiology are encouraged to attend, as the course begins at a very basic level and progresses to more complicated topics. Topics include properties of ion channels, firing properties of neurons, synaptic transmission, and neurophysiology methodology.]

C&MP 630a/PATH 680a/PHAR 502a, Seminar in Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology Readings and discussion on a diverse range of current topics in molecular medicine, pharmacology, and physiology. The class emphasizes analysis of primary research literature and development of presentation and writing skills. Contemporary articles are assigned on a related topic every week, and a student leads discussions with input from faculty who are experts in the topic area. The overall goal is to cover a specific topic of medical relevance (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration) from the perspective of three primary disciplines (i.e., physiology: normal function; pathology: abnormal function; and pharmacology: intervention). D. Nguyen

C&MP 650b/PATH 660b/PHAR 580b, The Responsible Conduct of Research Organized to foster discussion, the course is taught by faculty in the Pharmacology, Pathology, and Physiology departments and two or three senior graduate students. Each session is based on case studies from primary literature, reviews, and two texts: Francis Macrina’s Scientific Integrity and Kathy Barker’s At the Bench. Each week, students are required to submit a reaction paper discussing the reading assignment. Students take turns leading the class discussion; a final short paper on a hot topic in bioethics is required. B.E. Ehrlich, S.K. Singh

C&MP 710b/MB&B 710b, Electron Cryo-Microscopy for Protein Structure Determination Understanding cellular function requires structural and biochemical studies at an ever-increasing level of complexity. The course is an introduction to the concepts and applications of high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. This rapidly emerging new technique is the only method that allows biological macromolecules to be studied at all levels of resolution from cellular organization to near atomic detail. Counts as 0.5 credit. F.J. Sigworth, C.V. Sindelar

Child Study Center

NIHB 208, 203.785.2540

http://medicine.yale.edu/childstudy

Professors A.F.T. Arnsten (Neuroscience), H. Blumberg (Psychiatry), M. Brackett, K. Chawarska, J.P. Comer, W.S. Gilliam, R.A. King, J.F. Leckman, P.J. Lombroso, S. Marans, A.S. Martin, L.C. Mayes (Chair), M. Picciotto (Psychiatry), M.N. Potenza (Psychiatry), J.E. Schowalter (Emeritus), N. Sestan (Neuroscience), G. Shahar (Adjunct), W.K. Silverman, R. Sinha (Psychiatry), J.K. Tebes (Psychiatry), F. Vaca (Emergency Medicine), F.M. Vaccarino, F.R. Volkmar, C. Weitzman (Pediatrics), J. Woolston, H. Zhang (Public Health)

Associate Professors M. Bloch, L.E. Fiellin (Medicine), D.M. Gordon (Psychiatry), M. Hampson (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), T.J. McMahon (Psychiatry), J.C. McPartland, I. Park (Genetics), C. Pittenger (Psychiatry), F. Shic (Adjunct), M. Smith, D. Stubbe, D. Sukhodolsky

Assistant Professors A. Abyzov (Adjunct), L. Cardona-Wolenski, A.L. Close, G. Coppola, M.J. Crowley, T.V. Fernandez, A.R. Gupta (Pediatrics), E. Hoffman, E.R. Lebowitz, C.L. Olezeski (Psychiatry), Y.B. Poncin, K.K. Powell, H. Rutherford, N. Salmaso (Adjunct), D. Scheinost (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), L. Taylor, T.C. VanDeusen (Psychiatry), P. Ventola, A. Westphal (Psychiatry), S. Yip (Psychiatry)

Instructors S. Baddam, M. Garland, C. Moreno, R. Muhle, C.S. Pierart

Senior Research Scientist G.M. Anderson

Research Scientists M. Finn-Stevenson, T. Liu, S.L. Macari, Z. Pringle, C. Reyes

Associate Research Scientists A. Amiri, C. Bailey, L. Booth, F.E. Brown, R. Ebling, P. El-Fishawy, M. Goslin, M. Goyette-Ewing, H. Hahn, J. Hoffmann, K. Koenig, A. Landeros, J. Mariani, C. Marin, A. Maupin, A. Naples, S.S. Nicholls, A. Ponguta, D. Simmons, S. Stahl, R. Stern, S. Tomasi, Q. Wang, E. Warnick, J. Wu

Clinical Professors J. Adnopoz, K.D. Pruett, D. Reiss, A. Slade, L.A. Vitulano

Assistant Clinical Professors D.M. Aversa, K.F. Bailey, M. Best, S. Brooke, C.J. Cutter, T. Davila, N. de la Fontaine, L. Dennehy, D.M. Dodge, J. Eisenberg, P. El-Fishawy, C. Epstein, S. Fontenelle, S. Gossart-Walker, K.E. Hanson, R. Jou, B. Kleine, L. Lavalley, R. Lawton, P. Lembeck, B. Lewis, M. Lyons, J. Mayo, C. Mills, A. Myers, B.F. Nordhaus, C. Singh, P. Smith, A. Square, K. Voccola, J.M. Wolf, V.J. Zecchini

Clinical Instructors J.E. Arias, R. Cifarelli, M. de Carvalho, A. Deignan-Kosmides, H.S. Dowling, K. Finch, J. Gereda, K. Gereda Marganski, B. Graham, C. Hine-Suppies, G. Hughes, E. Jarzabek, K. Kowats, N. Libby, T. Llewellyn, K. Malensek, C. Parrott, S. Peck, J. Radawich, C. Schaefer, M. St. Pierre, V. Stob, T. Vanderwal, K.M. Williams, M. Wnek

Lecturers L.G. Barbieri, M.A. Ben-Avie, N.A. Brown, C.J. Cooper, M. Gunsalus, D.P. Hauser, S. Heidmann, C.M. Horwitz, N.L. Kaufman, J.P. Platner, P. Rhodeen, C. Savo, S. Taddei, E.O. Tongul

The Child Study Center is a multidisciplinary academic department of the School of Medicine for the study and care of children from birth through adolescence and their families. Child psychiatrists, psychologists, pediatricians, social workers, psychoanalysts, biomedical scientists, nurses, and other professionals collaboratively engage in research and treatment programs on various aspects of children’s growth and development, both normal and deviant. Research programs include child development, psychiatric disorders, social systems and schools, mental retardation, psychosomatic conditions, crisis and trauma, and treatment. Clinical services are provided in general and specialized outpatient clinics, in the Child Psychiatry Inpatient Service in the Children’s Hospital of Yale New Haven Hospital, and in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Consultation-Liaison Service. The center provides courses and other academic opportunities for undergraduates and graduate students in various disciplines concerned with children and families, as well as specialized training in child psychiatry, psychology, social work, and clinical research.

CHLD 302/Psych 320, Child Study Center Clinical Research Elective This elective entails etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of adolescent psychopathology, including eating disorders, depression, suicide, psychosis, delinquency, and the impact of physical and mental disabilities on adolescent development. Reading is supplemented with live and taped clinical material. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

CHLD 325/Psych 325, Child Study Center Psychiatry Elective The aim of this elective is to provide the student with an intensive experience in infant, child, and adolescent psychiatry. The curriculum includes assessments of normal development and psychopathology in childhood, treatment methods, and research in major disorders of childhood. Students are active team members of the Children’s Psychiatric Inpatient Service (CPIS) and the consultation service to the pediatric wards of Yale New Haven Hospital and can take advantage of the wide range of ongoing seminars, conferences, and clinical services in place at the Child Study Center. Teaching methods include seminars, conferences, field observations, ward rounds, and practicals selected by the student following consultation with the director of medical studies and the Child Study Center. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Comparative Medicine

BML 330, 203.785.2525

http://medicine.yale.edu/compmed

Professors A.M. Bennett (Pharmacology), S. Diano (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), V.D. Dixit, M. Hajos (Adjunct), J. Hirsch, T.L. Horvath (Chair), R.O. Jacoby (Emeritus), J.D. Macy, N. Sestan (Neuroscience), C.J. Zeiss

Associate Professors C. Fernandez-Hernando, X. Gao, I. Levy, B. Lindenbach (Microbial Pathogenesis), M.S. Rodeheffer, P.C. Smith, Y. Suarez, X. Yang

Assistant Professors J.L. Asher, C.J. Booth, M.O. Dietrich, J.A. Goodrich, S.R. Wilson

Research Scientists S.A. Castner, S.R. Compton, J.M. McGrath (Genetics), T.P. Nottoli, G. Williams

Associate Research Scientists S. Bai, Z. Liu, N.L. Price, H. Pushkarskaya, M. Sahraei, M. Stoiljkovic, B. Stutz Xavier, L. Varela, N.R. Vila, Y. Youm, X. Zhang

Dermatology

LCI 501, 203.785.4092

http://medicine.yale.edu/dermatology

Professors R.J. Antaya, J.L. Bolognia, M.W. Bosenberg, I.M. Braverman (Emeritus), L. Chen (Immunobiology), K.A. Choate, R.L. Edelson (Chair), F.M. Foss (Medicine), M. Girardi, E.J. Glusac (Pathology), P.W. Heald (Emeritus), C.J. Ko, D.J. Leffell, J.M. McNiff, L.M. Milstone (Emeritus), D. Narayan (Surgery), J.S. Pober (Immunobiology), R.E. Tigelaar (Emeritus), L.D. Wilson (Therapeutic Radiology)

Associate Professors O.R. Colegio, S.E. Cowper, A. Galan, V. Greco (Genetics), B.A. King, A. Sethi, M.M. Tomayko

Assistant Professors C.G. Bunick, S.R. Christensen, B.G. Craiglow (Adjunct), S. Imaeda, L. Kole, J. Leventhal, P. Myung, S. Ramachandran, K. Suozzi, A. Zubek

Instructors W. Damsky, J. Farhadian, L. Levy, I. Lim, I. Odell, M. Totonchy, M. Vesely

Senior Research Scientists D.E. Brash (Therapeutic Radiology), R. Halaban, L.M. Milstone

Associate Research Scientists K.R. Blenman, D.J. Hanlon, K. Katsuno

Clinical Professor I. Dvoretzky

Associate Clinical Professor E.B. Milstone

DERM 120, Dermatology Outpatient Elective The goal of this course is to ground students in the fundamentals of dermatologic physical examination, diagnosis, and treatment. Students are expected to acquire the skills needed by a primary care physician or surgeon to evaluate dermatological problems independently. Through outpatient experiences at the West Haven VA Medical Center, the Adult and Pediatric Yale Primary Care Clinics, and possibly the Yale Health Center, students are exposed to a variety of primary and referral dermatology services that treat inflammatory and neoplastic skin diseases. Students are also exposed to dermatologic surgery and dermatopathology. Students participate in departmental Grand Rounds and educational conferences, and read and review assigned materials in preparation for a series of case discussions led by faculty. A formal presentation on a topic of the student’s choice is required in the final week. One or two students every four weeks. Director: S. Imaeda

DERM 302, Dermatology Inpatient Consult Elective Working as integral members of the dermatology consult team, comprised of a dermatology resident and attending physician, students are exposed to dermatologic disease requiring inpatient admission, systemic disease with cutaneous manifestations, and skin complications among hospitalized patients. Students learn about initial evaluation, workup, and differential diagnosis building; the role of biopsy and histologic evaluation; and treatment plan design. Under resident supervision, students evaluate a new consult patient each day and follow this patient for the course of the patient’s stay. Students are expected to read intensively on relevant disease processes and formally present the patient to the attending on rounds. Additionally, students research disease and management-related questions that arise on the service and informally present a summary of findings to the attending and resident. Students participate in departmental Grand Rounds and educational conferences and in resident rounds of the inpatient service. Each student identifies a patient with a chronic dermatologic condition, conducts an in-depth interview to learn about how the disease and its treatment have affected the patient’s life, and how life considerations have affected disease management. At the end of the rotation, the student presents a formal case presentation and literature review at Grand Rounds. One student every four weeks. Prerequisite: DERM 120. Directors: M.M. Tomayko, S. Imaeda

Section of Education

Office of Education: ESH 305, 203.737.4190

Office of Student Research: ESH 308, 203.785.6633

http://medicine.yale.edu/education/curriculum

Integrated Course Curriculum

Master Courses

MD 1000, Introduction to the Profession The first master course in the new curriculum is Introduction to the Profession, or iPro. This is a two-week course in which students have the opportunity to participate in an immersive hospital experience and introduction to New Haven as well as an introduction to bioethics and professional responsibility. Themes emphasized are teamwork and communication, the experience of illness for the patient, and medical decision-making and what goes into it. The premise of iPro is stories. Students reflect on the stories of the patients they meet and hear about, stories of the neighborhoods from which their patients come, the stories of the profession they are entering, and their own stories as they move forward in their professional journeys to become physicians. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. N.R. Angoff

MD 1025, Scientific Foundations This course integrates essential content from biochemistry, cell biology, epidemiology and public health, genetics, pathology, pharmacology, and physiology to provide first-year medical students with a foundation of knowledge in the basic sciences that underlies modern medicine. The course organizes content from the above disciplines into the following themes: Building a Body, Cell Communication, Cell Energy, Fluids and Gradients, Gene Expression, Life and Death of a Cell, and Population Health. Additional organ- and systems-related content for the above disciplines is distributed across the remaining pre-clerkship courses, as appropriate. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. P.A. Takizawa

MD 1050, Genes and Development This course begins with content in the areas of basic human genetics, genetics technology, embryology, and developmental genetics. This is followed by principles of neoplasia and cancer biology, considering neoplasia as a genetically based aberration of normal development and cellular regulation. The course concludes with the topics of clinical oncology and hematology. This content is integrated and sequenced for optimal learning utilizing a variety of teaching methods including lectures, demonstrations, team-based learning, small-group workshops, clinical-pathologic correlations, patient interviews, and labs. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. A.E. Bale, M.P. DiGiovanna

MD 1075, Attacks and Defenses This course includes content focused on the ability of the body to respond to injury, especially infectious and inflammatory injury. Themes include innate immunity, cellular immunology, infection and immunity, applied topics in immunopathology including autoimmune diseases such as are seen in rheumatology and immunomodulation, infectious disease and antimicrobial therapeutics, and dermatology and musculoskeletal disorders, integrating content areas by interweaving immunology and infection to inform each section of the other’s concepts. Human anatomy is introduced and aligned to the musculoskeletal content. There is also an introduction to radiology with specific topics relevant to the anatomy material. Multiple small workshops and laboratories focus on practical aspects of this material including microbiology laboratories; laboratories that focus on histologic aspects of injury and repair; and workshops on clinical approaches and management of common musculoskeletal, infectious, and dermatologic conditions. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. Lectures may be audited with approval of the course directors. S.M. Campbell, R.J. Homer

MD 1100, Connection to the World An integrative overview of the structure and function of the human brain as it pertains to major neurological and psychiatric disorders. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and clinical correlations are interrelated to provide essential background in the neurosciences. Lectures in neurocytology and neuroanatomy survey neuronal organization in the human brain, with emphasis on functional regionalization in the brain and on the long fiber tracts related to clinical neuroscience. Laboratory sessions examine preparations of human brain to explore anatomical relationships. Lectures in neurophysiology cover neuronal function at the cellular level, with a strong emphasis on the mammalian nervous system. Clinical correlations focus on specific diseases and are presented by one or two faculty members representing both basic and clinical sciences. Throughout the course, lectures in neurology and sensory system clinical correlates are paired with presentations of structure-function relationships. Lectures on the biological basis of behavior are integrated with neurology and psychiatry. Topics in the biological basis of behavior and psychiatry include principles and neural mechanisms of learning and memory, neural systems involved in fear and anxiety, reward and drug addiction, stress, and neural systems attention. Patients diagnosed with specific diseases aree interviewed by course faculty during clinical correlations and workshops. Teaching formats include lectures, labs, team-based learning, workshops and clinical correlations. Open to M.D., M.D./Ph.D., and Neuroscience Ph.D. students only. The course cannot be audited. C.A. Greer, D.S. Navaratnam

MD 1125, Homeostasis Homeostasis is one of the fundamental properties of any living organism. The heart, lungs, and kidneys work in concert to provide oxygen to and remove toxins from our cells, and do so continuously from our first breath to our last. This course integrates cardiology, pulmonary, and renal content. The course starts with the renal system prior to the summer break, supported by digital anatomy sessions. Cadaver dissections matched to the organ and systems content of the course begin in the fall. Physiology and pathophysiology of organ systems are integrated in workshops and are taught by both clinical and physiology faculty. The sessions are heavily case-based and aimed at preparing the students for their clinical rotations. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. D.S. Geller, S. Hull, N. Thande

MD 1150, Energy and Metabolism This course integrates physiology, cell biology, pathology, and pathophysiology for the following content areas: metabolism, gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic, endocrinology, and the liver. It includes topics in nutrition, epidemiology and public health, and history of medicine. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. E.H. Holt, C.R. Kapadia

MD 1175, Across the Lifespan The goal of this course is for medical students to acquire knowledge of normal and abnormal human development through all stages of life: conception, pregnancy and birth, child and adolescent growth and development, the reproductive years, and middle age and senescence. Material is taught in a variety of formats, including lectures, small-group workshops that discuss patient cases, and laboratories, and in a way that fosters the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills and prepares students to enter clerkships. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. F. Galerneau, C. Kumar

Longitudinal Courses

MD 1200, Human Anatomy This longitudinal course runs concurrently with the master courses of the School of Medicine curriculum. It begins in the second term of first year and is completed at the end of the first term of the second year. Human Anatomy is integrated with the radiology, embryology, and pathophysiology activities of the master courses. Students engage in lectures, conferences, and cadaver dissections. Extensive use is made of computer software and Web-based radiologic, anatomic, and clinical reasoning activities. Four students are assigned to each cadaver; students work collaboratively; interpersonal and group process skills are stressed. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. W.B. Stewart and staff

MD 1225, Professional and Ethical Responsibility This course runs longitudinally through the first year and features lectures, readings, and small-group case discussions. The course examines the various contexts (social, legal, financial, and organizational) in which the practice of medicine takes place, with a particular focus on principles and approaches to medical ethics. Specific ethical problems in the practice of medicine are addressed, both historical and current, and these issues are considered in the setting of individual patient encounters as well as on the societal level. In addition, practical and ethical aspects of the various components of the U.S. health care system are reviewed. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. J.S. Hughes, L. Dugdale

MD 1250, Scientific Inquiry: Research Methods and Responsible Conduct of Research (includes MD 501b) The goal of this course is to instill in students an understanding of the value of the Yale student research program and thesis and to provide a primer for success in the thesis. Emphasis is placed on how to choose an excellent thesis project and mentor in laboratory or clinical research, as well as in the areas of epidemiology and public health, international medicine, or medicine and the humanities. Students are instructed on the importance of the research environment, the selection of the best possible up-to-date methods, the importance of issues related to human investigation, and the requirements for HIC approval of protocols for medical student research. Open to M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. J.N. Forrest, faculty, and staff

MD 501b, Responsible Conduct of Research (taught as part of MD 1250) The Office of Student Research and the M.D./Ph.D. Program have developed a compact ethics course that satisfies the NIH requirements for students supported on training grants, i.e., first- and fifth-year medical students, and M.D./Ph.D. students. Attendance is mandatory by those students. Topics covered include peer review; responsible authorship and publications; policies regarding human subjects; live vertebrate animal subjects in research and safe laboratory practice; collaborative research including collaborations with industry; data acquisition and laboratory tools, management, sharing, and ownership; conflict of interest; mentor-mentee responsibilities and relationships; research misconduct and policies for handling misconduct; the scientist as a responsible member of society, contemporary ethical issues in biomedical research, and the environmental and social impacts of scientific research. Material is taught through lectures with group discussion and case studies. (Six 1.5-hour sessions.) J.N. Forrest S. Alfano, M.J. Caplan, L. Cohen, F. Gorelick, B. Kazmierczak, R.J. Levine, D. Lewin, J.D. Macy, M. Picciotto, D.G. Schatz, S.S. Spangler, M. Waxman

MD 1300, Clinical Skills This course spans the first eighteen months of school for all medical students. Students begin to develop and refine their clinical skills, the essential elements of “doctoring” that physicians use during patient encounters. In Clinical Skills (CS), students learn to communicate with patients, families, and other members of the care team; examine patients; develop clinical reasoning skills; and understand the important role of a student-doctor in a patient’s care. Multiple teaching modalities are utilized in CS, but the bulk of the experiences are designed to be hands-on, offering students the opportunity to develop clinical skills with direct faculty observation and feedback, frequently with the use of standardized patients. Throughout CS, emphasis is placed on taking a patient-centered approach to care. Students pass the course by attending all class sessions (attendance is mandatory) and performing a competent history and physical exam in a standardized assessment session at UConn. Course content is practiced and supplemented in the Interprofessional Longitudinal Clinical Experience (ILCE). Director: J. Talwalkar

MD 1350, Interprofessional Longitudinal Clinical Experience The Interprofessional Longitudinal Clinical Experience (ILCE) is designed to prepare first-year health professional students to function effectively in the clinical environment. This course groups students from Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Nursing, and the Yale Physician Associate Program to work together at a clinical site alongside faculty mentors. Students work at their sites approximately once a week throughout the first year of school. The program goal is for students to learn with, from, and about other health care professional students early in their training. Students accomplish this by working together to develop their clinical skills, knowledge, and attitudes, in conjunction with each school’s individual plan of study. Open to M.D., M.D./Ph.D., PA, and YSN students. Attendance at ILCE sessions is mandatory. Director: K. Wilkins; Codirectors: B.J. Wu, L. Honan, D. Brisette

MD 1355, Medical Coach Experience (MCE) The MCE is a program for medical students which begins at the end of the ILCE course. Each MCE coach works with a group of four students approximately once a week from mid-April of Year 1 through mid-December of Year 2. The main purpose of the MCE is to prepare students to successfully complete the standardized history and physical examination assessment at the University of Connecticut and to provide students opportunities to develop the skills they will need on clerkships starting in January of second year. Through the MCE, students see patients with physician coaches and develop their identities as future physicians. Director: B. Wu

Integrated Clerkships

MD 2000 (IM)/MD 2025 (NEUR), Medical Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes internal medicine (eight weeks) and neurology (four weeks) clinical components. Throughout the clerkship, students participate in integrated experiences that address the themes related to hospital-based care such as management of acute disease, diagnostic skills, transitions of care, quality improvement, and organ systems. Directors: D.B. DiCapua, D.W. Dunne

MD 2050 (IM)/MD 2075 (Psych), Biopsychosocial Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship comprises a six-week rotation in primary care and a six-week rotation in psychiatry. During the six-week primary care component, students spend 5–6 half-days each week working in a practice for adult primary care (i.e., general internal medicine, family medicine, or combined medicine/pediatrics) and 2–3 half-days each week working in a practice for general pediatrics. The psychiatry component of the clerkship includes three weeks of inpatient psychiatry, three weeks of consultation-liaison or emergency psychiatry, and six half-day sessions in a longitudinal outpatient psychiatry or integrated primary care–psychiatry clinic. Primary care and psychiatry each have distinct classroom exercises. However, an integrated classroom curriculum brings students together each Thursday afternoon to explore the many topics that overlap primary care and psychiatry, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, somatic symptom disorder, and pain. Directors: P. Ellis, K.M. Wilkins; Codirectors: A.M. Fenick, M. Goldenberg

MD 2100 (SURG)/MD 2125 (EMER), Surgical Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes surgery (six weeks, general; three weeks, specialties) and emergency medicine (three weeks) clinical components. Throughout the clerkship students participate in integrated experiences that address themes of the OR experience such as perioperative care, emergency/trauma management, procedures, medical error and patient safety, and anesthesiology. Students also participate in a twelve-week mentoring program during the clerkship. Directors: J. Bod, F. Liu; Codirectors: K. Pei, D. Stitelman

MD 2150 (OBGY)/MD 2175 (PEDS), Women and Children’s Health Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes clinical components in obstetrics and gynecology and pediatrics. Students participate in six weeks of OB/Gyn and six weeks of pediatrics, with a mix of inpatient and ambulatory clinical experiences in both specialties. Throughout the clerkship students participate in integrated experiences that cover themes such as health and development, preventive care, sexual health, families and communities, health promotion and disease prevention, and perinatal care. All students attend an evening session with the gynecologic teaching associates. Directors: D.C. Hersh, S.R. Pathy; Codirectors: V.B. Desai, C. Boeras

Fourth-Year Courses

MD 9999, Capstone Course The capstone course is required of fourth-year students in the spring term beginning the week of the internship match. Conceived more than ten years ago as a capstone to four years of medical school training, the course provides a review of some of the knowledge and skills needed for internship and beyond; discipline-specific bootcamps for hands-on pre-internship training; a forum for a comprehensive and critical evaluation of clinical cases; a chance to review some of the historical and economic factors that inform the practice of medicine; and an opportunity to reflect on the social, ethical, psychological, and even spiritual challenges of a life in medicine. Director: D.I. Rosenthal

Elective Courses

MD 101, Intensive Pedagogical Experience in Laboratory Research Techniques Intensive one-week summer course in biomedical research protocols and techniques is open to first-year medical students at Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. Four biomedical research topics are the focus of each course: (1) physiological studies of chloride transport in an intact epithelial organ from Squalus acanthias; (2) ion channel gene expression in a heterologous expression system (Xenopus oocytes); (3) studies in isolated tubule preparations, including immunocytochemistry of phosphorylated vs. non-phosphorylated co-transporters, tissue processing, confocal microscopy, Western blots, and antibody design; (4) molecular biology of membrane proteins and transporters in shark salt gland, including methods in RNA, cDNA, PCR, cloning, and sequencing. J.N. Forrest, B. Forbush, P. Aaronson, L.G. Cantley, and staff

MD 102, Organization and Leadership This course is an introduction to topics in the field of organizational behavior. It is designed to offer participants an opportunity to explore a variety of concepts that relate to the effective and humane management of organizations. Though medicine was once a profession made up primarily of individual practitioners, it is increasingly true that medical professionals, both researchers and clinicians, are now involved in collective endeavors that require coordinated efforts to produce meaningful results. This is the domain of organizational behavior and the subject matter of this course. D.N. Berg

MD 103, Applied Principles of Clinical Research (First-Year Seminars)—Office of Student Research The purpose of this intensive two-week course is to provide an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented research. Topics include research designs, how to ask a research question, data collection, how to write a protocol, bias in studies, qualitative methods, etc. Emphasis is placed on applying concepts to students’ actual research projects. Sessions are workshops that combine didactics and use students’ projects to illuminate concepts. Students must have declared interest in conducting patient-oriented research by May of the first year. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks in summer to be announced. Staff

MD 104, Applied Principles of Clinical Research (Fifth-Year Seminars)—Office of Student Research The purpose of this intensive two-week course is to provide an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented designs, how to ask a research question, data collection, how to write a protocol, bias in studies, qualitative methods, etc. Emphasis is placed on applying concepts to students’ actual research projects. Sessions are workshops that combine didactics and use students’ projects to illuminate concepts. Students must be funded for one year of research. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks in summer to be announced. Staff

MD 110, The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine (YJBM) The course provides an educational opportunity for students in medicine, public health, nursing, and the biological sciences to gain experience in all aspects of academic publishing. The YJBM publishes online four times a year through PubMed Central and receives manuscripts on a wide variety of topics in basic and clinical sciences from authors around the world. Alongside participating faculty members, students review and select articles for publication and have the opportunity to review books and write articles showcasing their research or sharing clinical experiences from Yale and abroad. Student editors are chosen each year from the School of Medicine and the Combined Program in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. The editorial staff meets monthly. Faculty adviser: J.R. Bender

MD 210, Cushing/Whitney Medical Library Information Survival Skills This two-week elective attempts to fill a void in the student’s educational experience related to medical informatics. It is designed to introduce the publication, dissemination, and knowledge cycle of medical information. Using a variety of instructional methods, students develop the skills to access, retrieve, evaluate, and manage information for research and clinical purposes. J. Spak, J. Glover

MD 503, Seminars in Pediatrics: Bedside to Bench The purpose of these seminars is to begin to understand how interesting questions derived from patients can help us learn more about biologic and pathologic processes. We specifically engage the group in discussions related to diseases or medical problems that affect infants and children. Students select a topic and faculty preceptor, see a patient with that preceptor, lead a seminar, present the patient briefly to the group, and, most importantly, develop some questions that arise in the course of learning about the patients. C.W. Bogue, M. Brueckner, M.K. Khokha, J.D. Jamieson

MD 505, Family and Transgender Medicine Elective (Oneonta, New York) This is a unique opportunity to experience the full spectrum of family practice in a small-town environment. In this elective students (1) learn how to approach the practice of family medicine in a small town with limited access to specialists and how to use available resources to provide high-quality care, (2) learn about care coordination with larger health care systems in this practice setting, (3) learn about the practice of medicine in a small community and how physicians are integrated into that community, and (4) develop a family systems-based approach to providing care. The preceptor is a Yale graduate who provides primary care for a diverse population in both the hospital and clinic setting. In addition to both inpatient and outpatient family medicine, the preceptor also has a large practice in transgender medicine for both youths and adults, providing a unique practice opportunity. One student every two or four weeks. Directors: P. Ellis, C. Wolf-Gould

MD 510, Teaching and Learning Center Medical Education Elective The word “doctor” is derived from the Latin docere, which means “to teach.” Indeed, the role of physicians as care providers is deeply intertwined with their role as teachers—of patients, of students, and of peers. The goal of this rotation is to introduce medical students to their role as teachers and better prepare them for this role before they begin residency. It makes use of didactic lectures, observations, group exercises, and teaching activities to facilitate the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to help students develop their experience and identity as teachers as they transition from medical school into residency. The objectives are (1) to develop specific skills that will allow students to teach more effectively in the various clinical and classroom scenarios (work rounds, grand rounds, physical diagnosis rounds, operating room, morning report, noon conference) that they will experience during residency; (2) to observe and learn from role models in the field of medical education and describe the characteristics of effective teachers; (3) to describe the current state of medical education, with a focus on educational theory and evidence derived from the medical education literation; (4) to explore how students can integrate their roles as clinician and educator regardless of career goals; and (5) to develop the attitudes that place a strong emphasis on the value of medical education. Assessment is built into the elective through self-reflection and verbal and written feedback from peers and faculty. These include homework assignments or feedback in group exercises and teaching activities. Students are also asked to self-assess their previous knowledge of and exposure to each of the topics described in the course. All students complete a set of objective structured teaching encounters (OSTEs) at the end of the course, directly observed by faculty facilitators. Maximum of twelve students for two weeks. Directors: J. Hafler, S. Holt, S. Soares

MD 600, Family Medicine Elective (Middlesex Hospital) This elective exposes students to the wide variety of clinical situations encountered in a national model, community-based family medicine residency program. In offices in Middletown, Portland, and East Hampton, students see and examine patients, present their findings and differential diagnosis, develop a plan of investigation and management with their supervisor, and explain the plan to their patients. Students manage and document care using electronic health records. In Middlesex Hospital, students are members of the team on the family medicine inpatient service, which provides medical, pediatric, newborn, maternity, and consultative care. Formal teaching activities include both didactic and interactive sessions, daily bedside teaching rounds, several weekly conference series, and weekly three-hour hands-on seminars. All three offices are equipped with facilities for minor surgery, casting, colposcopy, spirometry, audiometry, complete vision screening, electrocardiograms, various cultures, and rapid, enzyme-based diagnostic tests. Patients are from all walks of life and all ages and seek medical care for a wide variety of acute and chronic conditions. The emphasis is on continuity in ambulatory, nursing home, and hospital care. One student every four weeks. Director: M. Cardona

MD 610, Palliative/Hospice Medicine Elective (Branford, Connecticut) This fifty-two-bed inpatient program at the nation’s first hospice provides intensive palliative care for patients with terminal illness. The medical, psychological, and spiritual needs of these patients and their families are met through the coordinated efforts of an interdisciplinary team (IDT) of physicians, nurses, social workers, pharmacists, clergy, art therapists, and volunteers. Students work one-one-one with an attending physician caring for patients approaching the end of life and their families. They participate fully in admissions, morning rounds, family conferences, and IDT conferences. This elective offers students an opportunity to acquire advanced knowledge and skills in the management of symptoms (pain, anxiety, insomnia, etc.), which will benefit them in their future care of all patients, both those approaching the end of life as well as those who are acutely or chronically ill. It is the only elective in which symptom management receives a major focus. The goal of this elective is to learn to provide optimal symptom management and, as members of the IDT, to learn to care for patients approaching the end of life and to give support to their families. A four-week rotation, which allows for optional time spent with allied services and/or home care, is recommended, although a two-week rotation is available. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: J. Sacco

MD 1275/MGT 657b, Creating Health Care and Life Science Ventures This course gives students a broad understanding of the major “new venture” opportunities in health care and medicine—health care delivery, health care IT and the digital health landscape, biotechnology, medical devices, and health care process redesign especially in the surgical space. In each of these areas, they learn the canonical path to commercialization including how to identify “unmet clinical needs” market opportunities; who is the customer; how to build interdisciplinary teams; regulatory hurdles to commercialization; and creation of a business strategy. The course is designed for a diverse student body including students from management, natural sciences, medicine, law, nursing, and health care management programs. The course comprises lectures, raw cases, guest speakers, and in-class projects with coaching from the venture investor community. This thirteen-week class is held at Yale School of Management, Evans Hall, and is open to all medical students. For questions, contact the instructors at christopher.loose@yale.edu or ayesha.khalid@yale.edu. Directors: C. Loose, A. Khalid

MD 1300, Evolution and Medicine Flipped curriculum: the lectures are recorded and available online. Each week the assigned lectures and corresponding assigned readings should be viewed/read before coming to class. That assignment is tested with short-answer quizzes and reading responses, which must be submitted before class. Those who have not submitted those responses are not allowed to come to class. Class consists of discussion of the points in the lectures and readings that were found to be difficult and of recent research papers relevant to the topic at hand. The course writing assignment for medical students is to substantially improve the Wikipedia page on a topic of their choice in evolutionary medicine. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Required text: Stearns and Medzhitov, Evolutionary Medicine (2015). Director: S. Stearns

MD 1325, Uncertainty in Medicine: Critical Thinking and Decision-Making The goal for this course is to recognize that while much of medical education is traditionally centered on accrual of information for rapid recall, the health care profession is riddled with uncertainty and incomplete information. Health care providers are faced with multidimensional and multidisciplinary problems whose solutions require a combination of rigor, creativity, and collaboration. While our current approach to medical education is only reinforced by emphasis on short-answer standardized tests as metrics of aptitude, this course aims to combat that emphasis and prepare students for the complexities of the medical field by focusing on critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a case-based collaborative environment. We use case-based exercises to analyze topics that have contemporary relevance to medicine, e.g., development of screening programs for cancer or reporting and reduction of medical error. These exercises utilize a collaborative approach aimed at developing several distinct skills: defining the scope of a complex problem, reducing a problem into definable parts, examining each part from multiple angles, prioritizing the parts and their potential solutions, and committing to an actionable solution while acknowledging unaddressed complexities and unknowns. Open to all medical students. Enrollment limited to twenty. The class meets weekly at noon from mid-June to early August. Director: G. Lister

MD 1350, Inflammation This course covers fundamentals of inflammation from a broad biological perspective. Both physiological and pathological aspects of inflammation are the focus of this course, which is primarily for preclerkship medical students. Director: R.M. Medzhitov

MD 1375, Spanish for Health Care Professionals This hybrid course offered in the fall and spring terms by the Yale Center for Language Study meets two times a week: one time in a traditional classroom on campus (face-to-face) and another time online. All students are required to have a laptop, a headset, and access to high-speed Internet to participate in the online component. During the online meetings, students are expected to be in a quiet space where they will be able to participate in online oral discussions. The course site is located in Canvas, and the online meetings use the online conference tool Big Blue Button in Canvas. Open to second- through fifth-year medical students in the fall and to all medical students in the spring. Course fee of $140 is reimbursed to medical students upon successful completion of the course. For questions contact lsp@yale.edu. Director: YCLS Staff Affiliate

MD 1400, French for Health Care Professionals This hybrid course offered in the fall and spring terms by the Yale Center for Language Study meets two times a week: one time in a traditional classroom on campus (face-to-face) and another time online. All students are required to have a laptop, a headset, and access to high-speed Internet to participate in the online component. During the online meetings, students are expected to be in a quiet space where they will be able to participate in online oral discussions. The course site is located in Canvas, and the online meetings use the online conference tool Big Blue Button in Canvas. Open to second- through fifth-year medical students in the fall and to all medical students in the spring (based on enough student interest). Course fee of $140 is reimbursed to medical students upon successful completion of the course. For questions contact lsp@yale.edu. Director: YCLS Staff Affiliate

MD 3191 (2 weeks) 5272 (4 weeks), Primary Care and Community Health Advanced Clinical Elective at HAVEN (Longitudinal) This advanced clinical elective in primary care and community health provides the learner with an experience in primary care at a unique, underserved site: HAVEN, the Yale student-run free clinic, which serves predominantly Hispanic, adult, uninsured persons. This is an opportunity for students to gain clinical experience and help serve an underserved population in an urban medical site where students will also help teach and supervise students earlier in their training. Students choose eight or fifteen Saturdays to work during the year, flexibly scheduled with oversight by the student leadership at HAVEN. Saturday hours are typically 8 a.m.–2 p.m., beginning with morning meeting, followed by direct patient care, ending with afternoon case presentation and didactic presentation. This elective is offered to senior students, who are expected to assume full responsibility for their patients, under the supervision of attending physicians. Director: B. Richards

MD 4000, Clinical Longitudinal Elective, Tailored The student participates as an active member of the designated inpatient and/or outpatient service, participating in appropriate clinical cases at YNHH and/or the VA. A completed proposal with specific specialty learning objectives must be submitted to the elective director. The student attends regularly scheduled specialty conferences (to be determined by the student and the clinic preceptor). Assignment may be made weekly, twice monthly, or monthly as determined by the student’s laboratory responsibilities and in association with the clinic preceptor. This is the equivalent of a two-week, full-time elective, pass/fail. The specific rotation dates are determined by the elective director. Open to Yale M.D./Ph.D. students only; students must have completed six months of clerkships. Director: T. Taddei

MD 5271, Primary Care and Community Health Advanced Clinical Elective at Chinle, Arizona This advanced clinical elective in primary care and community health provides the learner with an immersion experience in primary care at a unique, underserved site: Chinle Health Center. This month-long rotation supervised by Steve Williams, M.D., and colleagues provides an opportunity to work with Navajo on the reservation in rural, northeast Arizona. Students appreciate working with traditional native American healers in a remote, beautiful landscape, addressing health needs created by poverty and injustice, and learning about career opportunities with the Indian Health Service. This elective is offered to senior students, who are expected to assume full responsibility for their patients, under the supervision of expert attending physicians. Director: P. Ellis

MD 5273, Primary Care and Community Health Advanced Elective at San Francisco This advanced clinical elective in primary care and community health provides the learner with an immersion experience in primary care at a unique, underserved site: San Francisco Free Clinic. During this month-long rotation supervised by Yale medical school alumni Patricia and Richard Gibbs and colleagues, students assume significant autonomy in seeing diverse patients. Students with interest in Orthopaedics can sometimes accompany Dr. Richard Gibbs to provide orthopaedic care to members of the San Francisco Ballet. This elective is offered to senior students, who are expected to assume full responsibility for their patients, under the supervision of expert attending physicians. Director: P. Ellis

MD 5274, Primary Care Wednesday Evening Clinic This one-year weekly outpatient elective in the Primary Care Center provides experience in the longitudinal care of adults. Students are directly responsible for care of medical problems and preventive care as well as coordination of specialty care for their own patient panel. There are weekly pre-clinic conferences, which include Journal Club and primary care case-centered topics presented by students or specialty attending physicians. The clinic is held every Wednesday evening, 5–9 p.m., except the day before Thanksgiving and between Christmas and New Year’s. It is open to a limited number of students who have completed at least half of their clerkships (M.D./Ph.D.) or all of their clerkships (M.D.). Students must have completed the MAP clerkship. Director: P. Oray-Schrom; staffed by rotating attending physicians

Emergency Medicine

464 Congress Avenue, Suite 260, 203.785.4404

http://medicine.yale.edu/emergencymed

Professors C. Baum (Pediatrics), S.L. Bernstein, M. Bogucki, C.A. Brandt, K. Cheung, D.C. Cone, D. Della-Giustina, G. D’Onofrio (Chair), J.D. Dziura, D.A. Fiellin (Medicine), S.M. Powsner (Psychiatry), K. Santucci (Pediatrics), A. Ulrich, F. Vaca

Associate Professors L.D. Arnold (Pediatrics), M. Auerbach (Pediatrics), K.A. Bechtel (Pediatrics), M. Chawarski (Psychiatry), L. Chen (Pediatrics), M.X. Cicero (Pediatrics), L.V. Evans, J. Goulet, A.L. Hsiao (Pediatrics), K. Jubanyik, M. Langhan (Pediatrics), C. Moore, H. Mowafi, B. Safdar, M. Shapiro, C. Wira

Assistant Professors F. Abujarad, P. Agrawal, P. Aronson (Pediatrics), A. Aydin, B. Biroscak, D. Boatright, J.W. Bonz, D.R. Camenga, R. Carter, S. Chekijian, R. Dreyer, B. Emerson (Pediatrics), A. French, K. Goldflam, M. Goldman (Pediatrics), D. Harriman, R. Harrison, K. Hawk, S. Jarad, R. Liu, E. Marcolini, E. Melnick, E.P. Monico, H.C. Moscovitz, C.M. Ngaruiya, V. Parwani, A. Riera (Pediatrics), J. Sather, A.F. Tarabar, R. Taylor, S. Thomas, G.Y. Tiyyagura (Pediatrics), A. Tomassoni, A. Tsyrulnik, R. Van Tonder, A. Venkatesh

Instructors C. Baloescu, J. Belsky, J. Bod, R.F. Coughlin, J. Crosby, R. Heckmann, D. Joseph, M. Joseph, M. Newton, A. Oh, S. Ravi, J. Ray, E. Reid, A. Selvam, J. Walrath, A. Wong, C. Yu

Senior Research Scientist M.V. Pantalon

Associate Research Scientist C.H. Lee

Associate Clinical Professors M. Hommel (Pediatrics), S.A. Walsh (Pediatrics)

Assistant Clinical Professors K.J. Burns, T. Moadel, C. Rambus, I. Schwartz

Lecturers L. Almonte, K. Baker, T. Balga, G. Bernardi, N. Bliss, J. Bria, R.E. Chen, C. Choi, J. Ciarleglio, A. Cieply, T.E. Cohen, S. Colella, V. Colon, G. Demers, C. Dill, D. Dinh, L. Eddy, T. Erdman, G. Faherty, K. Finnucan, L. Franzman, M. Gargano, L. Gonzalez, B. Hannon, K. Haskins, E. Heenan, A. Hirschman, M. Hosker, H. Jolicoeur, E. Kelleher, K. Kelley, T. Kimberly, R. Kissane, J. Koziel, J. Kulas, R. Lachapelle, D. Leonard, D.S. MacMillan, A. Meiman, T.A. Morris, D. O’Reilly, M. Pabom, M. Paridis, R. Patel, A. Pazienza, D. Purdy, V. Sinha, E. Taillon, V. Takacs, S. Verity, J. Walker, S. Welch, H.B. White, M. Young

MD 2125 (EMER)/MD 2100 (SURG), Surgical Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes surgery (six weeks, general; three weeks, specialties) and emergency medicine (three weeks) clinical components. Throughout the clerkship students participate in integrated experiences that address themes of the OR experience such as perioperative care, emergency/trauma management, procedures, medical error and patient safety, and anesthesiology. Students also participate in a twelve-week mentoring program during the clerkship. Directors: J. Bod, F. Liu; Codirectors: K. Pei, D. Stitelman

EMER 105, Emergency Medicine Subinternship At Yale New Haven Hospital, emergency medicine subinterns complete a four-week rotation comprised of clinical shifts and didactic activities. Students complete sixteen shifts of eight hours’ duration. Students are expected to function as interns, evaluating patients primarily, managing multiple patients simultaneously, and presenting directly to the senior resident and attending physician. Students see a broad case mix in the emergency department and are expected to generate coherent, problem-focused, differential diagnoses. They are involved in all aspects of patient care including updating patients and families, calling consultants, and performing procedures. They rotate with a variety of attendings and are exposed to faculty from the sections of education, ultrasound, critical care, global health, administration, and EMS. Didactic activities for subinterns include resident educational conference, ultrasound image review, and simulation. Prerequisites: Internal Medicine and General Surgery Clerkships. Maximum of eight students every four weeks. Director: J. Bod

EMER 112, Emergency Medicine Point-of-Care Ultrasound Elective A two- or four-week experience that introduces the student to the use of diagnostic and procedural ultrasound at the bedside. Educational ultrasounds are performed by the student on emergency department patients using ultrasound equipment in the ED. Attention is paid to image acquisition, machine optimization, and image interpretation. Diagnostic pelvic, vascular, cardiac, pulmonary, biliary, trauma, and soft-tissue sonography are introduced. In addition, there are opportunities for the student to participate in supervised ultrasound-guided procedures (central and peripheral vascular access, abscess drainage, paracentesis). The bulk of time is spent performing ultrasounds in the emergency department, with one half-day a week spent reviewing recorded examinations. Educational materials are provided. While the focus of this rotation is the sonographic evaluation of the emergency patient, students considering almost any specialty may benefit as clinician-performed ultrasound continues to expand. This elective is dedicated solely to the experience and practice of point-of-care ultrasound in the ED. Students are assigned daily scanning shifts that do not carry any clinical responsibility but offer exposure to the clinical environment. It is not the same as the combined Emergency Medicine/Ultrasound Subinternship, in which the student is primarily assigned clinical shifts to demonstrate knowledge, proficiency, and workflow, and also receives exposure to ultrasound through a few scan shifts and image review sessions. Maximum of four students every two or four weeks. Director: R. Liu

EMER 115, Medical Simulation Elective During this two- or four-week elective at the Yale Center for Medical Simulation (YCMS), students gain an immersive experience participating in medical simulation for medical education within the Yale School of Medicine. Students participate as learners in high-fidelity medical simulation cases and procedural sessions on topics related to the students’ desired specialty/topic of interest. Students also participate in medical simulation as educators and facilitators by participating as actors in medical simulation cases for medical students and residents rotating through YCMS. Students have the opportunity to participate in all educational activities within YCMS including simulation cases, debriefing sessions, procedural sessions, and in-situ simulations (simulations that take place in the clinical environment). Students also create and program a medical simulation case on their topic of interest under the mentorship of YCMS faculty, using evidence-based medicine resources. Students are given one-on-one instruction on how to program their case. Students can also participate in simulation-based journal clubs, a simulation debriefing course, and simulation-based medical student precede sessions. Maximum of four students every two or four weeks. Director: L.V. Evans

EMER 155/PEDS 155, Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective Fourth-year students have the opportunity to evaluate and manage a broad range of acute medical and surgical complaints while honing their clinical skills under direct attending supervision, including thirty-six clinical hours per week in the pediatric emergency department. Education during clinical shifts is augmented by pediatric emergency medicine fellow education conferences and one-on-one teaching sessions with the elective director. Participation in teaching conferences and mock codes is required. One student every four weeks; two- and three-week rotations considered upon request. Prerequisites: pediatric rotation, EPIC inpatient training, and EPIC ED e-learning. Director: P.L. Aronson

EMER 305, Combined Emergency Medicine/Ultrasound Subinternship At Yale New Haven Hospital, combined emergency medicine/ultrasound subinterns complete a four-week rotation comprised of twelve clinical shifts, four scanning shifts dedicated to bedside ultrasound, and didactic activities. On clinical shifts, subinterns are expected to function as interns, evaluating patients primarily, managing multiple patients simultaneously, and presenting directly to the senior resident and attending physician. Students see a broad case mix in the emergency department and are expected to generate coherent, problem-focused, differential diagnoses. They are involved in all aspects of patient care including updating patients and families, calling consultants, and performing procedures. They rotate with a variety of attendings and are exposed to faculty from all sections of the emergency department, but they spend a majority of their shifts with ultrasound-trained faculty to maximize their ability to incorporate bedside ultrasound into clinical evaluation. Scanning shifts are dedicated to the skills of performing and interpreting bedside ultrasounds and are typically supervised by a senior resident or ultrasound fellow. Attention is paid to image acquisition, machine optimization, and image interpretation. Diagnostic pelvic, vascular, cardiac, pulmonary, biliary, trauma, and soft-tissue sonography are introduced. In addition, there are opportunities for the student to participate in supervised ultrasound-guided procedures (central and peripheral vascular access, abscess drainage, paracentesis). This is an advanced elective. Applicants must have completed or plan to complete an Emergency Medicine rotation prior to starting this elective. One or two students every four weeks. Director: J. Bod

Genetics

SHM I308, 203.785.2649

http://medicine.yale.edu/genetics

Professors A.E. Bale, S.J. Baserga (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), W.R. Breg (Emeritus), M. Brueckner (Pediatrics), K.A. Choate (Dermatology), L. Cooley, D.C. DiMaio, P.G. Gallagher (Pediatrics), J.E. Gelernter (Psychiatry), A.J. Giraldez (Chair), P.M. Glazer (Therapeutic Radiology), J.R. Gruen (Pediatrics), M. Gunel (Neurosurgery), K.K. Hirschi (Medicine), A.L. Horwich, K.K. Kidd (Emeritus), R.P. Lifton (Adjunct), H. Lin (Cell Biology), M.J. Mahoney (Emeritus), S.M. Mane, A. Mani (Medicine), M.N. Nitabach (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), C.M. Radding (Emeritus), V. Reinke, J. Rothberg (Adjunct), M.R. Seashore (Emerita), N. Sestan (Neuroscience), S. Somlo (Medicine), J.B. Sweasy (Therapeutic Radiology), P.J. Tattersall (Laboratory Medicine), S.M. Weissman, T. Xu (Adjunct), H. Zhao (Public Health)

Associate Professors C. Cotsapas (Neurology), V. Greco, D. Greif (Medicine), M. Hammarlund, N.B. Ivanova, M.K. Khokha (Pediatrics), P. Li, J. Lim, J. Lu, J. Noonan, I. Park, C. Scharfe, Z. Sun, S.D. Weatherbee, A. Xiao

Assistant Professors K. Bilguvar, S. Chen, S. Krishnaswamy, M. Lek, B. Lesch, M. Muzumdar, S. Nicoli, M. Spencer-Manzon, S. Wang, F. Wilson (Medicine), H.Z. Zhang

Senior Research Scientist K.K. Kidd

Research Scientists W.A. Fenton, A.M. Hudson, J. Knight, J.M. McGrath, A.J. Pakstis

Associate Research Scientists L.M. Boyden, A. Canaan, P.R. Clark, N. Gandotra, S. Golla, P. Jain, K. Kim, H. Kokubu, M. Kudron, A. Lek, W. Leung, D. Li, J.F. Lopez-Giraldez, D. Ma, S. Mehta, M. Nagy, L.M. Petti, A. Popa, F. Qian, P. Sun, A.M. Szekely, Y. Tanaka, D. van Dijk, Z. Wang, J. Wen, T. Wu, J. Yang, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhao

GENE 555a/CB&B 555a/CPSC 553a, Machine Learning for Biology This course introduces biology as a systems and data science through open computational problems in biology, the types of high-throughput data that are being produced by modern biological technologies, and computational approaches that may be used to tackle such problems. We cover applications of machine-learning methods in the analysis of high-throughput biological data, especially focusing on genomic and proteomic data, including denoising data; nonlinear dimensionality reduction for visualization and progression analysis; unsupervised clustering; and information theoretic analysis of gene regulatory and signaling networks. Students’ grades are based on programming assignments, a midterm, a paper presentation, and a final project. S. Krishnaswamy

GENE 625a/MB&B 625a/MCDB 625a, Basic Concepts of Genetic Analysis The universal principles of genetic analysis in eukaryotes are discussed in lectures. Students also read a small selection of primary papers illustrating the very best of genetic analysis and dissect them in detail in the discussion sections. While other Yale graduate molecular genetics courses emphasize molecular biology, this course focuses on the concepts and logic underlying modern genetic analysis. J. Lu

[GENE 645b/BIS 645b/CB&B 647b, Statistical Methods in Human Genetics Probability modeling and statistical methodology for the analysis of human genetics data are presented. Topics include population genetics, single locus and polygenic inheritance, linkage analysis, quantitative trait analysis, association analysis, haplotype analysis, population structure, whole genome genotyping platforms, copy number variation, pathway analysis, and genetic risk prediction models. Prerequisites: EPH 505a and BIS 505b, or equivalent; and permission of the instructor. Offered every other year.]

GENE 655a/CBIO 655a, Stem Cells: Biology and Application This course is designed for first-year or second-year students to learn the fundamentals of stem cell biology and to gain familiarity with current research in the field. The course is presented in a lecture and discussion format based on primary literature. Topics include stem cell concepts, methodologies for stem cell research, embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, cloning and stem cell reprogramming, and clinical applications of stem cell research. Prerequisites: undergraduate-level cell biology, molecular biology, and genetics. I.-H. Park

GENE 675a and 676b, Graduate Student Seminar: Critical Analysis and Presentation of Scientific Literature Students gain experience in preparing and delivering seminars and in discussing presentations by other students. A variety of topics in molecular, cellular, developmental, and population genetics are covered. Required of all second-year students in Genetics. Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. V. Greco

[GENE 703b, The Mouse in Biomedical Research This course describes aspects of comparative genomics, construction of genetically altered mice, mouse phenotyping, and study design relevant to the use of mice in the study of human disease. Prerequisites: undergraduate-level knowledge of genetics and mammalian anatomy and physiology.]

[GENE 734b/MB&B 734b/MBIO 734b, Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses Lecture course with emphasis on mechanisms of viral replication, oncogenic transformation, and virus-host cell interactions.]

GENE 743b/MB&B 743b/MCDB 743b, Advanced Eukaryotic Molecular Biology Selected topics in transcriptional control, regulation of chromatin structure, mRNA processing, mRNA stability, RNA interference, translation, protein degradation, DNA replication, DNA repair, site-specific DNA recombination, somatic hypermutation. Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor. M.W. Hochstrasser, W. Gilbert

GENE 760b, Genomic Methods for Genetic Analysis Introduction to the analysis and interpretation of genomic datasets. The focus is on next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications including RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and exome and whole genome sequencing. By the end of the course, each student will be able to process and analyze large-scale NGS datasets and interpret the results. This course is intended only for graduate students who are interested in applying genomic approaches in their thesis research. At a minimum, students must have basic familiarity with working in a UNIX/Linux computing environment. Prior experience with shell scripting or a scripting language such as Perl, Python, or Ruby is strongly recommended. Interested students must contact the instructor early in the fall term to discuss their prior experience and expectations for the course. Enrollment limited to twenty. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. J. Noonan

GENE 777b/MCDB 677b, Mechanisms of Development An advanced course on mechanisms of animal development focusing on the genetic specification of cell organization and identity during embryogenesis and somatic differentiation. The use of evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways to carry out developmental decisions in a range of animals is highlighted. Course work includes student participation in critical analysis of primary literature and a research proposal term paper. Z. Sun

GENE 840a and b, Medical Genetics Elective Students participate in the diagnosis and management of fetuses, children, and adults with genetic disorders or who are at risk for genetic disorders. Patients are assigned to students for counseling and diagnostic evaluation, and for presentation at conferences. A laboratory experience in one of our genetics laboratories (Cytogenetics, Biochemical, and Molecular) is arranged according to the interest of the student. Twenty hours per week. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: M. Spencer-Manzon

GENE 900a/CBIO 900a/MCDB 900a, First-Year Introduction to Research—Grant Writing and Scientific Communication Grant writing, scientific communication, and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

GENE 901b/CBIO 901b/MCDB 901b, First-Year Introduction to Research—Ethics: Scientific Integrity in Biomedical Research Ethics and laboratory rotation talks for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. J. Bewersdorf

GENE 911a/CBIO 911a/MCDB 911a, First Laboratory Rotation First laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

GENE 912b/CBIO 912b/MCDB 912b, Second Laboratory Rotation Second laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

GENE 913b/CBIO 913b/MCDB 913b, Third Laboratory Rotation Third laboratory rotation for Molecular Cell Biology, Genetics, and Development track students. V. Horsley

GENE 921a or b, Reading Course in Genetics and Molecular Biology Directed reading with faculty. Term paper required. Prerequisite: permission of Genetics DGS.

Global Health

Office of International Medical Student Education: ESH 214, 203.785.5937

http://medicine.yale.edu/globalhealth

GH 700/EPH 591, Global Health Foundations Global Health Foundations is a term-long, weekly elective intended for students in the health professions to develop an understanding of key aspects of global health research and practice. The objective is for students to attain a good understanding of key issues upon which they may base future research, service, and clinical pursuits in the field of global health. As the course involves students and faculty from all of the health professions, its participatory and collaborative nature provides a rich environment for interdisciplinary dialogue. Required of students in the Global Health Concentration at YSPH and YSN, and of students in the Certificate in Global Medicine program at YSM. Faculty advisers: G. Friedland, T. Rabin, S. Shenoi (YSM); P. Ryan-Krause (YSN); M. Skonieczny (YSPH); R. Gonzalez-Colaso (PA)

GH 701, Topics in Global Medicine Topics in Global Medicine is a student-led, case-based seminar that provides participants with a broad knowledge base in current globally important health issues. Each session focuses on a specific health concern and aims to integrate issues concerning epidemiology and prevention along with diagnosis and treatment in a case-based format and clinically relevant fashion. The specifics of medical management are not the priority for this course. Importantly, the course provides a forum for interactive discussions of the health issues that pose unique challenges in resource-limited settings. Most sessions are collaborative—a faculty instructor is paired with one or two students, and the team works together to research and present the topic. Typically, each session includes a one-hour lecture by the presenting team followed by a half-hour interactive discussion facilitated by the student presenters. The discussion format is flexible and will be guided by the particular session topic. The content might focus on ethical concerns, interesting research questions, preventive strategies, etc. The course is designed for students in all of the health profession programs, specifically physician associate (PA), nursing (YSN), medicine (YSM), and public health (YSPH) students who have an interest in the clinical aspects of global health; it is open to all members of the Yale community. Active participation is expected, whether by way of presenting a topic, leading a discussion session, or participating in the discussion. Upon completion of this course, students are able to (1) appreciate the spectrum of clinical diseases, both communicable and noncommunicable, affecting persons in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); (2) identify the major principles and challenges of providing medical care in LMIC; (3) broadly outline methods of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for diseases encountered in resource-limited settings; (4) appreciate the importance of public health interventions in dealing with these diseases; and (5) have the opportunity to collaborate with a faculty member on the presentation of a topic of interest. Participation in this class is highly encouraged for students and residents interested in applying for an international rotation. May be offered in 2018–2019

EMD 566b/HPM 566b, Critical Issues in Global Health The course focuses on critical challenges to the health of the poor in low- and middle-income countries and pays particular attention to how these health gaps can be addressed in low-cost and highly effective ways. The course covers the architecture, politics, and governance of global health; key trends in approaches to meeting the health needs of the poor in low- and middle-income countries; and how science and technology can be harnessed for this purpose. It examines the burden of disease and the determinants of this burden; covers the leading causes of illnesses, disability, and preventable death from communicable and noncommunicable diseases, with special attention to women and children; and focuses particular attention on key health systems issues and recent efforts to overcome them, especially in low-income settings. Required of students in the Global Health Concentration at YSPH and YSN. K. Khoshnood (YSPH)

History of Medicine

SHM L132, 203.785.4338

http://medicine.yale.edu/histmed

Professors N. Rogers, J.H. Warner

Assistant Professors H.M. Cowles (Adjunct), J. Radin, J.L. Schwartz (Public Health)

Yale College and Graduate School courses open to medical students:

HSHM 202a/AMST 247a/FILM 244a/HIST 147a/HLTH 170a, Media and Medicine in Modern America Relationships between medicine, health, and the media in the United States from 1870 to the present. The changing role of the media in shaping conceptions of the body, creating new diseases, influencing health and health policy, crafting the image of the medical profession, informing expectations of medicine and constructions of citizenship, and the medicalization of American life. J.H. Warner, G. Berland

HSHM 207b/AMST 236b/EVST 318b/HIST 199b, American Energy History The history of energy in the United States from early hydropower and coal to present-day hydraulic fracturing, deepwater oil, wind, and solar. Topics include energy transitions and technological change; energy and democracy; environmental justice and public health; corporate power and monopoly control; electricity and popular culture; labor struggles; the global quest for oil; changing national energy policies; the climate crisis. P. Sabin

HSHM 234b/HIST 471b, Medicine and Health in Society The history of Western medical knowledge and practice from antiquity to the present. Focusing on the role of medicine in daily life, this course considers patients and practitioners, various approaches to healing, as well as changing understandings of health, disease, and the body across time and place. R. Elder

HSHM 241a/AFAM 170a/HIST 479a, Sickness and Health in African American History A history of American medicine through the African American experience covering the period of slavery through #BlackLivesMatter. Oriented around the complex dynamics of medical abuse and medical resistance, key themes include medicine and slavery; gender and reproduction; medical experimentation and ethics; the rise of racial science; lynching and vigilante violence; segregation and public health; African-descended approaches to health and healing; the rise of the African American medical profession; and black health activism from slavery to #BlackLivesMatter. C. Roberts

HSHM 406a/HIST 150Ja, Healthcare for the Urban Poor Exploration of the institutions, movements, and policies that have attempted to provide health care for the urban poor in America from the late nineteenth century to the present, with emphasis on the ideas (about health, cities, neighborhoods, poverty, race, gender, difference, etc) that shaped them. Topics include hospitals, health centers, public health programs, the medical civil rights movement, the women’s health movement, and national health care policies such as Medicare and Medicaid. S. Abedin

HSHM 415b/HIST 179Jb, Historical Perspectives on Science and Religion The engagement between science and religion from a historical standpoint and a multicultural perspective. The Islamic, Jewish, Buddhist, and Christian traditions; the roots of modern creationism; salvation expectations and the rise of modern science and technology. General knowledge of Western and world history is expected. I. Dal Prete

HSHM 416a/HIST 414Ja, Engineering the Modern Body Exploring the human body in relationship to technology and the larger cultural processes of industrialization, medicalization, and most recently, the digital age. From Victorians who sought restoration from illness with electric belts, to the popularization of cosmetic surgery and gene therapy after World War II, students examine how the body became a canvas for a variety of personal, civic, and national goals. R. Elder

HSHM 432b/ER&M 360b/HLTH 370b/SOCY 390b/WGSS 390b, Politics of Reproduction Reproduction as a process that is simultaneously biological and social, involving male and female bodies, family formation, and powerful social institutions such as medicine, law, and the marketplace. Sociological research on reproductive topics such as pregnancy, birth, abortion, contraception, infertility, reproductive technology, and aging. Core sociological concepts used to examine how the politics of reproduction are shaped by the intersecting inequalities of gender, race, class, and sexuality. R. Almeling

HSHM 438b/HIST 473Jb, The Neurological Condition Exploration of how science, medicine, and technology have shaped understanding the brain and nervous system as the center of human identity. Consideration of the theories of diminishing “nerve force,” the electric cures of the Victorian era, fMRIs, and the current Century of the Brain research. Topics include the rise of professional neurology and neuroscience, cultural meanings of nerves and the brain, and the intimate role of patients and human subjects in formulating this science from the nineteenth century to the present. R. Elder

HSHM 445a/HIST 142Ja/WGSS 453a, Women and Medicine in America from the Colonial Era to the Present American women from the colonial era to the present as midwives, patients, healers, reformers, revolutionaries, innovators, and entrepreneurs. Ways that women have shaped American health care and medical research. N. Rogers

HSHM 468a/HIST 260Ja, Sex, Life, and Generation Theories and practices of life, sex, and generation in Western civilization. Politics and policies of conception and birth; social control of abortion and infanticide in premodern societies; theories of life and gender; the changing status of the embryo; the lure of artificial life. I. Dal Prete

HSHM 471a or b, Directed Reading Readings directed by members of the faculty on topics in the history of science, medicine, or public health not covered by regular course offerings. Subjects depend on the interests of students and faculty. Weekly conferences; required papers. I. Dal Prete

HSHM 479b/EVST 368b/HIST 491Jb/RLST 368b, The History of the Earth from Noah to Darwin Young earth creationism and flood geology have long been among the most divisive features of American culture and politics. Yet a basic postulate is shared across the spectrum: for better or worse, the old age of the Earth is regarded as the recent product of a secular science, consistently rejected by traditional Christianity. This seminar challenges this long-established narrative, by uncovering the surprising boldness, complexity, and societal diffusion of premodern debates on the history of the Earth, and of humankind itself. Students have opportunity to explore the nature, assumptions, and methods of Earth sciences before the advent of modern geology, to question ingrained assumptions about their relation to religion and society, and to place outstanding issues into historical perspective. How have the great monotheistic religions dealt with the possibility of an ancient Earth? Was a young creation always important in traditional Christianity? If not, what led to the emergence of young Earth creationism as a force to be reckoned with? What are the intellectual roots of American preadamism, which claims that the black and white races were created at different times and do not descend from the same ancestor? These and other questions are addressed not only through scholarly literature in the field, but also with the analysis of literary, visual, and material sources available on campus. I. Dal Prete

HSHM 481a/AFAM 213a/HIST 383Ja, Medicine and Race in the Slave Trade Examination of the interconnected histories of medicine and race in the slave trade. Topics include the medical geography of the slave trade from slave prisons in West Africa to slave ships; slave trade drugs and forced drug consumption; mental and physical illnesses and their treatments; gender and the body; British and West African medicine and medical knowledge in the slave trade; eighteenth-century theories of racial difference and disease; medical violence and medical ethics. C. Roberts

HSHM 483b, Health, Disease, and Racial Difference in Modern America Exploration of the meanings attributed to black-white differences in health from the late nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on the mutual construction of race and health/disease. Topics include specific diseases, (cancer, heart disease, tuberculosis, HIV) as well as health activism, “health disparities” research, and genomics. S. Abedin

HSHM 487a/HIST 479Ja, Disability, Science, and Society Science and disability are inextricably linked. Since at least the nineteenth century, medical science and technology have helped to define disability as a “problem” in need of intervention rather than as the product of increasingly stringent social norms. The medical gaze, systems of quantification, rubrics of “normality,” eugenics, intelligence testing—each of these tools of science has reinforced hierarchies of difference while devaluing the experiences of persons with nonconforming bodies and brains. In this course we explore this fairly recent history, focusing on the experiences of people with a range of disabilities through the prism of modern science, medicine, and technology. From prosthetic limbs to neuro-enhancing drugs, we examine how nineteenth- and twentieth-century sciences have shaped definitions and experiences of disability. Course topics include the nineteenth-century “invention” of disability, medicalization and eugenics, access and infrastructure, social versus medical models of disability, notions of control and able-bodiedness, and the rise of disability activism in the final quarter of the twentieth century. R. Elder

HSHM 658b, The History of the Laboratory The social and cultural history of the experimental laboratory as a site for scientific activity, from early modern origins to the present day. The early modern origins of the laboratory; private, institutional, and state laboratories; relations between labs and field stations; the lab in the colonial and developing world; industrial and corporate labs; laboratory architecture; secrecy and openness; gender in the experimental workplace; and popular representations of the laboratory. C. Ramalingam

HSHM 701a/AMST 878a/HIST 930a, Problems in the History of Medicine and Public Health An examination of the variety of approaches to the social, cultural, and intellectual history of medicine, focusing on the United States. Reading and discussion of the recent scholarly literature on medical cultures, public health, and illness experiences from the early national period through the present. Topics include the role of gender, class, ethnicity, race, religion, and region in the experience of health care and sickness and in the construction of medical knowledge; the interplay between vernacular and professional understandings of the body; the role of the marketplace in shaping professional identities and patient expectations; health activism and social justice; citizenship, nationalism, and imperialism; and the visual cultures of medicine. J.H. Warner

HSHM 710b/HIST 921b, Problems in Science Studies Exploration of the methods and debates in the social studies of science, technology, and medicine. This course covers the history of the field and its current intellectual, social, and political positioning. It provides critical tools—including feminist, postcolonial, and new materialist perspectives—to address the relationships among science, technology, medicine, and society. L. Messeri

HSHM 716a/HIST 936a, Early Modern Science and Medicine The course focuses on recent works in the history of science and medicine in the early modern world. We discuss how interdisciplinary approaches—including economic and urban history, sociology and anthropology of science, gender studies, art and colonial history—have challenged the classic historiographical category of “the Scientific Revolution.” We also discuss the avenues for research that new approaches to early modern science and medicine have opened up, placing special emphasis on the circulation of knowledge, practices of collecting, and visual and material culture. P. Bertucci

HSHM 753a/AMST 838a/HIST 749a, Research in Twentieth-Century United States Environmental History Students conduct advanced research in primary sources and write original essays over the course of the term. Topics are particularly encouraged in twentieth-century environmental history (broadly defined, no specified geography) as well as in U.S. history, with a focus on politics, law, and economic development. Readings and library activities inform students’ research projects. Interested graduate students should contact the instructor with proposed research topics. P. Sabin

HSHM 770b/HIST 940b/WGSS 782b, Disability Histories: Research Seminar This course introduces students to the major issues in current disability history as well as theoretical debates in disability studies. We discuss cultural, social, and political meanings of citizenship; efforts to define and classify disabled bodies; contested notions of bodily difference; and the ways disability has and continues to be used as a metaphor for socially defined inferiority like gender, race, or sexuality. By the fourth week students have identified the topic for their research papers and discussed them in class. The next month is devoted to research and writing. We start meeting again after spring break to read and discuss a draft of each paper. N. Rogers

In addition to formal course offerings and tutorials offered in the School of Medicine, Yale College, and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, activities in the Section of History of Medicine are supplemented by a number of related historical medical programs. Colloquia in the History of Science and Medicine are held fortnightly and are open to the School of Medicine community. The section sponsors an annual Frederic L. Holmes Lecture, and the Department of Surgery sponsors the annual Samuel Clark Harvey Memorial Lecture. The Nathan Smith Club is composed of medical students interested in medical history. The Beaumont Medical Club, founded at Yale in 1920, sponsors lectures in the History of Medicine during the academic year and annually selects a Beaumont Lecturer and a George Rosen Lecturer in the History of Medicine.

Section faculty are available for M.D. thesis supervision. Information about the History of Medicine M.D. thesis, and a list of recent titles, can be found at http://medicine.yale.edu/humanities/research/theses.aspx.

The section faculty work with the Department of History to offer a Ph.D. program in the History of Science and Medicine. In addition, there is an M.A. program designed particularly for those who plan to combine teaching or scholarship in these fields with a professional career in medicine or the life sciences. For further information concerning admissions and the program itself, consult the Graduate School bulletin.

Immunobiology

TAC S625, 203.785.3857

http://immunobiology.yale.edu

Professors J.R. Bender (Medicine), M.W. Bosenberg (Dermatology), A.L. Bothwell, H. Bottomly (Emeritus), L. Chen, T.H. Chi (Adjunct), J.E. Craft (Medicine), P. Cresswell, V.D. Dixit (Comparative Medicine), R.A. Flavell, D. Hafler (Neurology), K. Herold, A. Iwasaki, S. Kaech (Adjunct), P.B. Kavathas (Laboratory Medicine), R.M. Medzhitov, J.S. Pober, C.R. Roy (Microbial Pathogenesis), D.G. Schatz (Chair)

Associate Professors S.C. Eisenbarth (Laboratory Medicine), A.M. Haberman, S.H. Kleinstein (Pathology), J. MacMicking (Microbial Pathogenesis), E.R. Meffre, J.P. Pereira, C.V. Rothlin

Assistant Professors N. Joshi, M.A. Kriegel (Adjunct), C. Lucas, N. Palm, A. Ring

Research Scientists E. Esplugues, E.E. Eynon, T.D. Manes

Associate Research Scientists N. Arshad, P. Bielecki, W. Chae, E. Gulden, X. Han, W. Ip, A. Jayakumar, X. Jiang, N.C. Kirkiles-Smith, E.B. Kopp, R.M. Leonhardt, Y. Li, S. Manfredo Vieira, S.D. Pope, E. Roulis, J. Rui, F. Santori, H. Saribasak, D. Sengupta, R.B. Seth, M. Taura, J. Wang, H. Yu, T. Zhang, L. Zheng, G. Zhu

For a complete listing of immunology-related courses, see http://bbs.yale.edu.

IBIO 503b, Responsible Conduct of Research, Refresher Course The NIH requires that students receive training in the responsible conduct of research every four years. This course meets that requirement for fourth-year students. The course has two components: (1) one large-group session is held for all fourth-year students through the BBS; the main topics are scientific misconduct and authorship; (2) two Immunobiology faculty facilitate discussions based on RCR topics, gathered in advance from the students; anonymous or hypothetical stories are selected by the faculty and discussed in a workshop environment in which students are then asked to analyze each case and suggest courses of actions.

IBIO 530a/MBIO 530a/MCDB 530a, Biology of the Immune System The development of the immune system. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune recognition. Effector responses against pathogens. Immunologic memory and vaccines. Human diseases including allergy, autoimmunity, cancer, immunodeficiency, HIV/AIDS. E.R. Meffre and staff

IBIO 531b, Advanced Immunology The historical development and central paradigms of key areas in immunology. The course attempts to develop a clear understanding of how these paradigms were established experimentally. Landmark studies are discussed to determine how the conclusions were obtained and why they were important at the time they were done. Lecture and discussion format; readings of primary research papers and review articles. Prerequisite: IBIO 530 or equivalent. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Staff

IBIO 532b, Inflammation This course covers fundamentals of inflammation from a broad biological perspective, with a focus on both physiological and pathological aspects of inflammation. R.M. Medzhitov

IBIO 536a, Advanced Immunology Seminar: Neuroimmunology This course explores the diverse array of interactions between the immune and nervous systems, both in homeostasis and disease settings, including but not limited to neurodegenerative, vascular, and malignant diseases. Staff

IBIO 537b, Immunobiology Seminar: Translational Immunobiology This course is designed to introduce immunobiology Ph.D. students to translational research and medicine. Each weekly seminar focuses on a specific disease with a conspicuous immunological component. In-class periods consist of very interactive, didactic sections covering disease phenotype, underlying immunobiology and pathology, and mechanisms of treatment approaches, including limitations. Discussions are led by principal investigators who focus on human translational immunology and by clinician-scientists who see patients in associated clinics. Examples of topics include: T and B cell contributions to the underlying pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, myasthenia gravis, and other autoimmune diseases; immune responses to acute brain injury; inherited immune disorders; paradigms governing how antitumor immune responses are promoted or suppressed; and current approaches in immunotherapy-based clinical trials. Assignments challenge students to think creatively about solutions to problems that obstruct the progress toward understanding disease mechanisms and developing therapeutics. A term assignment, in the form of a research proposal, focuses on independent study of a translational immunobiology problem of each student’s choosing. Students are provided with elective opportunities for experiential learning through clinic visits with course faculty instructors. The combination of medical knowledge and interaction with translational and clinician-scientists provides a new perspective to immunobiology Ph.D. students that broadens their basic science training. The exposure to the practice of medicine enables them (and other graduate students) to work more confidently at the interface of research and medicine and facilitate collaborations with clinical investigators. Prerequisite: IBIO 531 or a similar course that provides a solid foundation in fundamental immunology; may be waived for highly motivated students. K. O’Connor

[IBIO 538a, Development of the Immune System This limited-enrollment seminar can serve as one of the two required seminar courses for Immunobiology graduate students. The course addresses the principles underlying the evolution of immunity, comparing immune defense strategies across the major divisions of living organisms including bacteria, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Major themes include immunity to viruses and endogenous mobile elements, molecules of immune recognition and mechanisms for their diversification, and the evolution of immune cells. A central goal of the course is for students to be able to use the knowledge gained to formulate hypotheses and identify important unanswered questions in the field of immune system evolution. The emphasis is on broad concepts and conceptual thinking regarding the origins of and links between the different strategies encountered. Assigned readings include review articles and papers from the primary literature, but students are expected to identify additional readings from the literature as they develop their ideas. Each class features two presentations by students on aspects of the week’s topic, as well as substantial input from other students. Student evaluation is based on class participation, oral presentations, and a short written “synthesis” paper. Enrollment limited to twenty-two. Preference is given to students who need the requirement in Immunobiology.]

[IBIO 540a, Translational Immunobiology This course is designed to introduce immunobiology Ph.D. students to translational research and medicine. The course is arranged in modules, each of which focuses on a specific disease with a conspicuous immunological component. Each module consists of (1) didactic sections: covering disease phenotype, underlying immunobiology and pathology, and mechanisms of treatment approaches including their limitations; (2) patient contact: the view of the disease from the patient’s perspective including symptoms and treatment options; and (3) clinical section: taking place in the hospital environment, where students are exposed to disease management approaches. The combination of medical knowledge and personal interaction with patients and their physicians provides a new perspective to immunobiology Ph.D. students that will broaden their basic science training and enable them to work more confidently at the interface of research and medicine and facilitate collaborations with clinical investigators. Enrollment limited to twenty-five. Prerequisites: IBIO 530 and 531.]

IBIO 600a, Introduction to Research: Faculty Research Presentations Introduction to the research interests of the faculty. Required of all first-year Immunology/BBS students. Pass/Fail. C.V. Rothlin

IBIO 601b/CB&B 601b, Fundamentals of Research: Responsible Conduct of Research A weekly seminar presented by faculty trainers on topics relating to proper conduct of research. Required of first-year Immunobiology students, first-year CB&B students, and training grant-funded postdocs. Pass/Fail. C.V. Rothlin

IBIO 611a, Research Rotation 1 Intensive experience in the design and execution of experiments in immunology or other areas of biology. Students design a focused research project in consultation with a faculty mentor and execute the designed experiments in the mentor’s laboratory. Students are expected to read relevant background papers from the literature, design and perform experiments, interpret the resulting data, and propose follow-up experiments. Students are also expected to attend the mentor’s weekly lab meeting(s) as well as weekly Immunobiology departmental seminars and Research in Progress seminars. The course concludes with the student giving a brief presentation of the work performed at Rotation Talks, attended by other first-year immunology-track graduate students. Evaluation is by the mentor; students also evaluate the rotation experience. Students must turn in a prioritized list of four possible mentors to Barbara Cotton in the office of the director of graduate studies at least one week prior to the beginning of the course. Mentors are assigned by the DGS. Graded Pass/Fail. 1 course credit; minimum of 20 hours/week. Required of all first-year Immunology/BBS students. C.V. Rothlin

IBIO 612b, Research Rotation 2 See description under IBIO 611a. C.V. Rothlin

IBIO 613b, Research Rotation 3 See description under IBIO 611a. C.V. Rothlin

Internal Medicine

Boardman 110, 203.785.4119

http://medicine.yale.edu/intmed

Professors C. Abraham, H.G. Allore, R.J. Alpern, F. Altice, P.S. Aronson, P.W. Askenase, H. Aslanian, L. Bastian, W.P. Batsford (Emeritus), A. Baumback (Adjunct), J.R. Bender, F.J. Bia (Emeritus), M.J. Bia, H.J. Binder (Emeritus), L.K. Bockenstedt, J.L. Boyer, A.E. Broadus (Emeritus), R. Bucala, L.M. Buckley, M.M. Burg, B.A. Burtness, H.S. Cabin, L.G. Cantley, L. Chen (Immunobiology), G.L. Chupp, M.W. Cleman, G.W. Cline, L.S. Cohen (Emeritus), D.L. Coleman (Emeritus), J.P. Concato, L.M. Cooney, J.E. Craft, S.T. Crowley, L. Dembry, G.V. Desir (Chair), V.T. DeVita, M.A. Drickamer (Emeritus), T.P. Duffy (Emeritus), J.D. Dziura (Emergency Medicine), J.P. Eder, A. Eichmann, J.A. Elias (Emeritus), D.G. Federman, D.A. Fiellin, E. Fikrig, R.L. Fisher, R.N. Formica, J.N. Forrest, A.H. Fortin, F.M. Foss, L. Fraenkel, T.R. Fried, G. Friedland (Emeritus), C.S. Fuchs, G. Garcia-Tsao, R.H. Gifford (Emeritus), T.M. Gill, J.A. Goffinet (Emeritus), S.D. Gore, F. Gorelick, M.L. Green, C.P. Gross, R.J. Groszmann (Emeritus), S.G. Haskell, R. Herbst, K. Herold, K.K. Hirschi, R.I. Horwitz (Emeritus), J.S. Hughes, S.J. Huot, J. Hwa, K.L. Insogna, S.E. Inzucchi, C. Jaffe (Emeritus), D. Jain (Pathology), P.A. Jamidar, E.A. Jonas, A.C. Justice, N. Kaminski, F.S. Kantor (Emeritus), C.R. Kapadia (Emeritus), B. Kasmierczak, W.N. Kernan, H. Kim (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), H. Kluger, A.I. Ko (Public Health), M.J. Kozal, H.M. Krumholz, M. Kryger, J. Lacy, L. Laine, R.J. Lampert, M. Landry (Laboratory Medicine), A.J. Lansky, F.A. Lee, P. Lee, R.J. Levine (Emeritus), R.C. Lilenbaum, P. LoRusso, M.J. Mamula, A. Mani, R.A. Marottoli, J.C. Marsh (Emeritus), R.A. Matthay (Emeritus), W. Mehal, P.K. Mistry, V. Mohsenin, M.H. Nathanson, P.G. O’Connor, C.R. Parikh, A.J. Peixoto, M.A. Perazella, K.F. Petersen, D. Petrylak, P.A. Preisig, D.D. Proctor, L. Pusztai, V.J. Quagliarello, A. Rastegar, C. Redlich, D.L. Rimm (Pathology), H.M. Rinder (Laboratory Medicine), M.E. Robert (Pathology), J.D. Roberts, C. Rochester, M.G. Rose, S.H. Rosenbaum (Anesthesiology), L.E. Rosenfeld, M.B. Russi, M.M. Sadeghi, R. Safirstein, M. Schilsky, M.A. Schwartz, L. Scoutt (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), W.C. Sessa (Pharmacology), R.S. Sherwin, G.I. Shulman, M.D. Siegel, M. Simons, A.J. Sinusas, B.R. Smith (Laboratory Medicine), A. Sofair, S. Somlo, R. Soufer, M. Strazzabosco, B. Sumpio (Surgery), M. Sznol, L. Tanoue, M.E. Tinetti, P. Varkey, R.J. Vender, F.S. Wright, J.J. Wysolmerski, L.H. Young, B.L. Zaret (Emeritus)

Associate Professors K. Adelson, J.G. Akar, N.R. Angoff, D.E. Antin-Ozerkis, L. Aoun-Barakat, W. Asch, J. Asnes (Pediatrics), C. Ben Mamoun, G.K. Berland, J.S. Bogan, J. Brennan, U.C. Brewster, H. Cain, H.H. Chao, S.I. Chaudhry, A. Chiang, H.J. Chun, J.F. Clancy, L.E. Cohn, J.P. Curtis, N.K. Dahl, J. Davis (Public Health), C. Dela Cruz, H.A. Deshpande, M.P. DiGiovanna, B.R. Doolittle, L.S. Dugdale, D.W. Dunne, S.C. Eisenbarth (Laboratory Medicine), P.J. Ellis, M.S. Ellman, J. Evans, J.J. Farrell, L.E. Fiellin, R. Fogerty, C.A. Fragoso, D. Geller, I. Genao, S.N. Gettinger, F.J. Giordano, D. Greif, V. Gribkoff (Adjunct), M. Gulati, C. Gunderson, S. Halene, C. Hatzis, J.B. Henrich, E.L. Herzog, R.I. Herzog, E. Hofstatter, E.H. Holt, S. Honiden, A. Imaeda, S. Ishibe, Y. Iwakiri, D. Jacoby, F. Jadbabie, R.M. Johnson, M. Juthani-Mehta, I. Kang, M. Kang, J.M. Kapo, S.S. Kashaf, R.G. Kibbey, J. Koff, J. Koo, J.D. Kravetz, S. Kulkarni (Surgery), P. Kumar, A. Lee, J.K. Lim, X. Llor, K.A. Martin, R.A. Martinello, R.L. McNamara, J. Meadows, E.R. Meffre (Immunobiology), C. Mena, E. Miller, H.R. Mojibian (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), R.R. Montgomery, J.P. Moriarty, L.J. Morrison, A.B. Nagar, D. Nguyen (Pathology), S.E. Pfau, M. Pillai, M.A. Pisani, T. Prebet, P. Protiva, J.T. Puchalski, Y. Qyang, A.B. Reisman, M.S. Remetz, J.R. Rosenbaum, J.S. Ross, C.B. Ruser, V.T. Samuel, L. Sanders, S.E. Seropian, J.F. Setaro, A.C. Shaw, D. Shenson (Public Health), J.C. Shepherd, J. Siner, M.N. Smith, C. Spirli, S.A. Springer, L. Sugeng, L.G. Suter, R. Sutton, M.A. Swidler, T.H. Taddei, S. Takyar, J. Talwalkar, J. Tetrault, D.G. Tobin, J. Van Rhee, M.S. Villanueva, L.M. Walke, E. Wang, L. Wen, D.M. Windish, C. Won, H.K. Yaggi

Assistant Professors F. Abnousi (Adjunct), S. Advani, T. Ahmad, K.M. Akgun, D. Alcantara-Cadillo, S. Altin, J. Andrews, A. Annamalai (Psychiatry), D. Assis, R. Attaran, M. Azar, L. Baldassarre, N. Bar, J. Batisti, W. Becker, R. Belfort De Aguiar, L. Bellumkonda, C.W.H. Bergwitz, A. Bhatia, P. Bhatt, S. Bholat, N.A. Boucher (Adjunct), K. Bramley, R. Brienza, D. Brissette, C. Britto-Leon, C. Brunet, J. Canterino, J. Chang, W. Chang, M. Chen, A. Chichra, J. Chu, G.G. Chung, A. Cohen, D.J. Curran, N. Desai, E. Donroe, J. Donroe, J. Dukes, E.E.J. Edelman, R.W. Elder (Pediatrics), B. Emu, A. Enriquez, E.C. Fajardo, C. Fankhanel, L. Ferrante, M. Fikrig, A. Fisher, C. Flannery (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), J. Forrest, J.V. Freeman, P.U. Gandhi, A. Garino, G. Giannopoulos (Adjunct), S.B. Goldberg, J. Gomez Villalobos, R. Gonzalez-Colaso, B. Gould Rothberg, L. Gowda, M. Grant, M. Gulati (Medicine), S. Gupta, N. Hafez, S.F. Hay, J. Herazo-Maya, Y. Ho (Microbial Pathogenesis), M. Hoffman (Adjunct), J. Holleck, S. Holt, R. Hoque, C.A. Howes, S. Huber (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), S. Huntington, M.E. Hurwitz, J. Hwang, I. Isufi, S. Jakab, D. Jane-Wit, A. Jastreboff, S. Jayasuriya, L. Jilaveanu, R. Kapel (Adjunct), R. Karagozian (Adjunct), P. Karanam (Adjunct), J.W. Kim, J.D. Kirsch (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), M. Knauert, F. Koumpouras, N. Krishnan, C. Kumar, C. Kurlander, R. Laff, G.S. Lee, R. Lefkowitz, A. Liapakis, B.A. Lin, S. Lin, K. Lipska, R. Luciano, B. Lupsa, M. Malinis, B. Malm, E.P. Marin, P.S. Marshall, A. Masoud, K. McKenzie, M.C. Mecca, K. Mehra (Adjunct), A. Mercer-Falkoff, N. Merchant, J. Meyer, V. Morris, J. Mortazavi (Adjunct), S. Mougalian, R. Munoz Xicola, T.E. Murphy, M. Muzumdar (Genetics), N. Neparidze, S. Nicoli, B. Njei (Adjunct), O. Ogbuagu, P. Oray-Schrom, X. Ouyang, K. Parakh (Adjunct), S. Parikh (Public Health), T. Parker, P. Peter, N. Podoltsev, J. Possick, C. Price, L. Puglisi, A. Putnam, T. Rabin, B. Richards, R.A. Rienzo, E.M. Roessler, D. Rosenthal, B. Roy, H. Sachar, C. Sakr (Adjunct), M. Sanchez, T. Sanft, C. Sankey, M. Sanmamed (Adjunct), J.R. Satchell-Jones, M. Sauler, K. Schalper (Pathology), A. Schwartz, J. Schwartz, S. Shenoi, A. Shirali, M. Silveira, M. Singer (Adjunct), S. Soares, R. Soucier, E.S. Spatz, J. Spelman, S.M. Stein, K. Talbert-Slagle, A. Tarabar, J. Tate, J. Testani, N. Thande, L. Tobias, J. Turner, L. Vasquez, S. Vilarinho, A. Wang, P. Wang (Adjunct), S.A. Weiss, L. Whitman, J. Wickersham, F. Wilson, F.P. Wilson, E. Wong, X. Yan, H. Zapata, A.M. Zeidan

Instructors A. Arora, B. Bade, S. Baldassarri, T. Bandaranayake, J. Belcher, W. Besse (Medicine), G. Bouras, B. Cherry, J. Chou Catanzaro, B. Clark, J. Cook, E. Cristea, P. Cudahy (Medicine), E. DeBiasi, L.D. Douglas-Churchwell, F. Foley, K. Gielissen, P.L. Hermany (Medicine), B. Howell (Medicine), D.J. Hur, U. Ikediobi (Medicine), R. Kaple, T. Kim, B. Linde (Medicine), J. McDougall (Medicine), E.M. Meoli, J. Miller, B. Miner, K. Nasir, S. Neary, J.M. O’Connor (Medicine), C. Oladele, B. Oldfield (Medicine), A. Osseo-Asare, J. Ouellet, M. Pensa, J. Perry, C. Philip, I. Richman, C. Ryu (Medicine), M. Showstark, D. Silvestri (Medicine), B. Stair (Medicine), A. Suarez, D. Vatner, R. Wadia, K. Wang, J. Weinstein, T. Wijesekera, M. Zegarek, A.V. Zinchuk

Senior Research Scientists D.I. Baker, H. Binder (Medicine), A. Broadus (Medicine), S. Cai, G. Friedland (Medicine), L. Han, L. Leng, Y. Liu, R. Matthay (Medicine), S. Narasimhan, W. Philbrick, C.J. Soroka, P.H. Van Ness, A.V. Wisnewski, Z. Zhuang

Research Scientists F. Ahangari, S. Alfano, A. Belperron, P. Chen, J. Choi, H.A. Doyle, R. Garofalo, M. Guerra, K. Hieftje, J. Jung, E. Kaftan, G.J. McAvay, A.F. Nassar, V. Rao, S. Thorn, H. Velazquez, C.M. Viscoli, G. Yao, G. Yu, J. Zhang

Associate Research Scientists D. Abdelfattah, O. Akide Ndunge, T. Alves, M. Amenduni, M. Aslan, K. Balestracci, K. Blount, V. Boddupalli, S. Brown, Y. Cai, M. Canavan, R. Chen, B.G. Coon, A. Coppi, F. Corti, D. Costello, V. Donempudi, K. Dong, S. Dragovic, X. Du, A. Dubrac, X. Fan, S. Fedeles, R. Fiorotto, A. Gallagher, R. Gao, K. Gordon, J. Guo, X. Guo, A. Gupta, B. Habashi, E. Habtemichael, A. Hajduk, H. Harshvardhan, S. Hassan, M. Hedl, J. Hens, Y. Hu, C. Huang, Y. Huang, R. Jain, J. Jeong, Y. Jia, Z. Jiang, S. Krishnan, A. Kumar, H. Lee, J. Lee, M. Li, P.P. Licznerski, S. Liu, X. Liu, A. Lloren, Y. Lu, J. Madera, M. Marczyk, A. Marlier, J. Martinez, K. Minges, N. Mnatsakanyan, S. Mohanty, S. Nair, W. Obeid, I. Papangeli, N. Papoutsidakis, R. Perry, L. Qin, V. Ramgolam, N. Ricard, M. Rodrigues, J.M. Rozanova, J. Ruan, M. Shin, A. Shojaee, M.H. Stowe, B. Sun, H. Sun, S. Sutton, N. Tai, K. Tanaka, T. Tebaldi, H. Thiessen Philbrook, R. Thomson, X. Tian, M. Vukmirovic, V. Wali, L. Wallace, F. Warner, Y. Xie, N. Xylourgidis, M. Yang, T. Yarovinsky, C. Yoon, S. Youn, P. Yu, A. Zelenev, F. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Zhang

Clinical Professors J. Borak, C. McPherson, D.N. Podell, B. Wu

Associate Clinical Professors K. Churchwell, J. Gerber, B. Gulanski, G. Hutchinson, J. Kortmansky, S. Mukherjee, J. Revkin, D. Rocklin, A. Silber, J. Smith, J. Topal, S. Wolfson

Assistant Clinical Professors A. Bekui, J. Brier, V. Chang, L. Chaptini, A. Danve, L.A. Freed, T.M. Fynan, E.M. Grubman, G. Henry, R. Henry, A. Hyson, C. Ionescu, S.S. Jacoby, M.E. Katz, W. Kidwai, H. Knight, A. Mohammad, J. Nadelman, R. Nudel, J. Oen-Hsiao, J.A. Orell, A. Pinar, M. Plavec, S. Possick, D.T. Price, K. Sabbath, J. Shi, J. Stepczynski, H.H. Tara, R.N. Tuktamyshov, O. Zaha

Clinical Instructors A.Q. Bhutta, V. Glinskii, F. Lopez-Gonzalez, R. Mehrzad

Lecturers D. Acampora, E. Balica, L.F. Cantley, Z. Chauhan, S. Cord, L. Fay, A. Flitcraft, P. Greif, N. Gupta, T. Hartenstein, S. Holland, T. Jabuonski, A.H. Jafri, J. Kenkare, Z. Ker, R.C. Klein, R. Linden, R.I. Lovins, R.R. Mahali, P. Maher, M. McDaniel, C. Morren, R. Nadkarni, S. Pryor, S. Punekar, M. Rai, E. Rippel, I. Rojkovskiy, I. Schiopescu, G. Singh, M. Slade, R. Smith, L. Street, M. Syed, D. Viveiros, Y. Wang, S. Williams

MD 2000 (IM)/MD 2025 (NEUR), Medical Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes internal medicine (eight weeks) and neurology (four weeks) clinical components. Throughout the clerkship, students participate in integrated experiences that address the themes related to hospital-based care such as management of acute disease, diagnostic skills, transitions of care, quality improvement, and organ systems. Directors: D.B. DiCapua, D.W. Dunne

MD 2050 (IM)/MD 2075 (Psych), Biopsychosocial Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship comprises a six-week rotation in primary care and a six-week rotation in psychiatry. During the six-week primary care component, students spend 5–6 half-days each week working in a practice for adult primary care (i.e., general internal medicine, family medicine, or combined medicine/pediatrics) and 2–3 half-days each week working in a practice for general pediatrics. The psychiatry component of the clerkship includes three weeks of inpatient psychiatry, three weeks of consultation-liaison or emergency psychiatry, and six half-day sessions in a longitudinal outpatient psychiatry or integrated primary care–psychiatry clinic. Primary care and psychiatry each have distinct classroom exercises. However, an integrated classroom curriculum brings students together each Thursday afternoon to explore the many topics that overlap primary care and psychiatry, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, somatic symptom disorder, and pain. Directors: P. Ellis, K.M. Wilkins; Codirectors: A.M. Fenick, M. Goldenberg

IM 122, Endocrinology Elective The student participates as an active member of the endocrine training program, making daily rounds with the endocrine fellows, residents, and attending physicians. The student works primarily on the inpatient consult service at Yale New Haven Hospital and has the opportunity to attend selected endocrine clinics at YNHH and the West Haven VA Medical Center. The student also participates in the regularly scheduled metabolism-endocrine conferences. Full-time. One student every two or four weeks. Director: S.E. Inzucchi

IM 123, Nephrology Elective This elective in clinical nephrology offers the student an opportunity for in-depth learning regarding problems in fluid and electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, and hypertension. Emphasis is placed on problem recognition, pathophysiologic diagnosis, evidence-based clinical judgment, and management based on pathophysiologic principles. The primary activity involves the inpatient consultation service in which the student works up and follows several patients per week and participates in daily rounds with the attending physicians, postdoctoral fellows, and residents on service. An introduction to hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation, and renal biopsy histology is also provided. One student every two or four weeks. Director: J. Turner

IM 137, Gastroenterology Elective The student is an integral part of the inpatient GI consult service, working primarily in an inpatient setting. This is an opportunity to see a wide variety of gastrointestinal problems and patients, with discussion and review. Open to fourth-year students only. One or two students every two or four weeks. Directors: T. Muniraj (two-week); H. Sachar, S.Jakab (four-week)

IM 141, Cardiology Elective The student participates in the daily activities of the inpatient cardiology consult service, including rounds, consultations, and conferences, and gains exposure to procedures such as cardiac catheterization, stress testing, echocardiography, nuclear imaging, and electrocardiography. The training experience emphasizes the physiologic basis for clinical manifestations and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. A collection of pertinent review articles is provided. Limited to one student at Yale New Haven Hospital every four weeks and one student at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, every two or four weeks. Directors: J. Brennan, C. Ionescu (YNHH); B.J. Malm (VAMC)

IM 142, Infectious Disease Elective This elective offers a robust learning experience in general infectious diseases, including the diagnostic evaluation and management of common community-acquired and nosocomial infections in a diverse patient population, as well as infections in the immunocompromised patient. There are opportunities for learning in subspecialty areas such as medical microbiology, transplant ID, HIV/AIDS, hospital infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and sexually transmitted diseases. Students participate as active members of the consultation and training program in infectious diseases at Yale New Haven Hospital and are expected to attend and participate in daily attending rounds, microbiology rounds four times a week, weekly clinical case conferences, and monthly journal clubs. Evaluations are based primarily on performance in clinical case presentations on the consult service. One student every two or four weeks. Director: O. Ogbuagu

IM 146, Hematology Elective This elective provides intensive exposure to clinical hematology by direct participation in the activities of a regular clinical hematology service. Students work up new patients and consults in rotation with the fellows and residents, and attend outpatient clinics. Students participate in daily hematology ward rounds and bone marrow readings, and in weekly inpatient and outpatient clinical reviews and clinical research conferences. One student every two or four weeks. Director: A.I. Lee

IM 152, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Elective This rotation is designed to provide senior medical students (and PA and nursing students) with an introduction to the principles and practice of occupational and environmental medicine, including exposure, assessment, and evaluation of disease causality. Students learn how to evaluate workplace and environmental exposures and assess the contribution of such exposures to patients’ diseases. In addition, students participate in ongoing didactic and research conferences and workplace surveillance programs, and they visit workplaces and other environmental sites that are being evaluated for their role in disease causation. Students are exposed to the varied opportunities for careers in this discipline. One student every two or four weeks. Director: J.M. Cook

IM 155, Internal Medicine Subinternship The subinternship offers students the opportunity to function in the role of an intern on an Internal Medicine inpatient team at Yale New Haven Hospital or West Haven VA Medical Center. Students join a team consisting of an upper-year medical resident and an attending physician and are responsible for admitting patients, writing admission and daily progress notes, presenting cases on rounds, communicating with consultants, ordering medications and tests, and serving as the front-line physician for patients admitted to the hospital. Students are responsible for managing approximately half the number of patients typically managed by an Internal Medicine intern. The subinternship offers an outstanding opportunity to prepare for internship, whether the student intends to pursue a career in Internal Medicine or another specialty. Prerequisites: third-year Internal Medicine clerkships. Four weeks. Director: M.D. Siegel

IM 156, Hepatology Elective The student is an integral part of the inpatient liver service, working primarily in an inpatient setting. This is an opportunity to see a wide variety of liver problems and patients, with discussion and review. Open to fourth-year students only. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: S. Jakab

IM 159, Pulmonary Elective This elective is designed to provide students with an in-depth knowledge of respiratory diseases through consults on the patient care floors and through didactic sessions and directed reading. Students become an integral part of the pulmonary and critical care (PCCM) section consult service, working with the attending physician and PCCM fellow(s). From two to six new consults on average are seen daily. Students work closely with faculty and staff of the pulmonary group and participate in daily consulting and rounds. Students assist in the examination and treatment of patients with various cardiopulmonary diseases, including tuberculosis, chronic obstructive airway disease, asthma, lung cancer, bacterial and fungal lung infection, and other diagnostic problems. They receive practical instruction in chest images and pulmonary function tests and their interpretation, and in clinical and laboratory methods used for diagnosis and management, including intensive respiratory care and respiratory therapy, and they have an opportunity to observe fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Weekly didactic lectures are given in a number of areas relating to airway pharmacology, lung cell biology, and lung immunology (respiratory cells, immunologic reactions, etc.). Students are expected to learn (1) the differential diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disorders, (2) how to interpret pulmonary function tests, and (3) how to read a chest radiograph and understand the essentials of a chest CT scan. One student every two or four weeks. Director: B. Clark

IM 180, Rheumatology Elective Students work closely with the faculty member and fellow assigned to the inpatient consultative service at both Yale New Haven Hospital and the West Haven VA Medical Center. They attend rounds and evaluate patients with rheumatic conditions and other diseases with rheumatic manifestations. In addition, they participate in outpatient clinics, including two arthritis clinics and two general rheumatology clinics, and attend two weekly conferences sponsored by the Section of Rheumatology. One student every two or four weeks. Directors: J. Evans, F. Koumpouras

IM 181, Oncology Outpatient or Inpatient Elective This is an advanced elective offered to students who have completed the third-year Internal Medicine Clerkship. It is designed to expose students to all aspects of clinical medical oncology by direct participation in the daily disease-specific outpatient oncology clinics at Yale Cancer Center. Working closely with the medical oncology fellows and attending physicians, students have the opportunity to work up patients with new cancer diagnoses and participate in the ongoing care of patients with diverse cancer diagnoses. Students participate as active members of the medical oncology training program, attending the regularly scheduled daily clinical conferences as well as weekly disease-specific multidisciplinary tumor boards and medical oncology fellow education conferences. Although the emphasis of the elective is on outpatient oncology in disease-specific units, students can also opt to work with the inpatient oncology team at Yale New Haven Hospital. Rotations at the VA Cancer Center can be arranged as well. Maximum of three students every two or four weeks. Director: S.M. Stein

IM 195, Medical Intensive Care Elective This elective provides an opportunity to participate in the acute management of common medical emergencies. Students are on call in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at Yale New Haven Hospital every fourth day with an intern and resident pair, assisting them in the admission of patients. Students follow patients in the MICU, assist in their care with the intern and resident, and are expected to present during rounds. Although students are exposed to a variety of ICU-based procedures, there are limited “hands-on” opportunities. Prerequisite: Internal Medicine Clerkship. No overnight responsibilities. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: S. Honiden

IM 201, Ambulatory Subinternship This one-year weekly outpatient subinternship in the adult Primary Care Center provides experience in the longitudinal care of Internal Medicine patients. Students are directly responsible for care of medical problems and preventive care as well as coordination of specialty care for their own patient panel. The clinic is held every Wednesday evening, 5:15–8:30 p.m., except the day before Thanksgiving and between Christmas and New Year’s. Students are responsible for three patient visits/sessions. Weekly pre-clinic conferences begin at 4:45 and include journal club and primary care case-centered topics presented by students. The subinternship is open to a limited number of students who have completed at least half of their clerkships (M.D./Ph.D.) or all of their clerkships (M.D.). Students must have completed the Medical Approach to the Patient clerkship. Completion of the Biopsychosocial Approach to Health Clerkship (clerkship components—Primary Care and Psychiatry) is highly recommended. Director: P. Oray-Schrom

IM 304, Analytical Clinical Cardiology Elective This rotation emphasizes a rigorous history and physical exam to develop a differential diagnosis to guide the care of patients in the hospital and clinic. Supplementary reading on topics arising from the management of the patients is an important component of the experience. Interested students should discuss their goals prior to the rotation. One student every two weeks. Director: J.E. Gage

IM 306, Allergy and Immunology Elective Students attend the Allergy & Immunology Clinic for adults at the Yale Allergy & Immunology Center in North Haven and the Allergy & Immunology Pediatric Clinic at Long Wharf. It is recommended that they attend the weekly Allergy and Clinical Immunology Seminar, followed by case discussions and Journal Club. They may also join in consultations with the Allergy & Immunology service at Yale New Haven Hospital. Prerequisite: Immunobiology course. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: C. Price

IM 312, Geriatric Medicine Elective An introduction to the continuum of care for older adults. Students gain an understanding of the various geriatric syndromes that affect functions in the aging population and learn to identify basic geriatric syndromes such as memory loss, delirium, depression, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, they are exposed to care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care issues in a variety of settings, including hospital, subacute long-term care and outpatient sites, and system-wide consultation services. Prerequisite: Internal Medicine clerkships. One student every two or four weeks. Director: G.J. Kerins

IM 361, Re-Entry to Clinical Medicine Elective The goal of this elective is to reinforce students’ clinical skills following their time away from clinical medicine. The emphasis is on history taking, physical examination skills, interpretation of data, morning presentations, medical terminology, patient communication, and coordination of care. Students are assigned to a team that consists of one intern, one resident, and one attending physician; or they may be assigned to a hospitalist team that consists of one attending physician and possibly a PA. Students are expected to perform at the clerkship level, performing admission history and physical exams, and following/presenting patients on daily rounds, with supervision. History, physical diagnosis, and laboratory interpretation skills are emphasized. One student every two or four weeks. Director: T.H. Taddei

Yale New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus Electives

IM 326, Geriatric Medicine Elective This elective provides an opportunity to diagnose and manage geriatric syndromes in a variety of settings, including inpatient consultation service, outpatient geriatric assessment clinic, and nursing homes. Students work up and follow patients and participate in weekly team conferences. One student every two or four weeks. Director: G.J. Kerrins

IM 327, Critical Care Elective Senior students participate in critical care medicine activities in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). The emphasis is on evaluation and acute management of respiratory failure, shock, and sepsis, and on the use of invasive monitoring. The physiological basis of disease and the rationale for therapeutic interventions are also emphasized. One student every two or four weeks. Director: A. Uzunpinar

Investigative Medicine

2 Church Street South, Suite 112, 203.785.6842

http://medicine.yale.edu/investigativemedicine

Professors K.S. Anderson (Pharmacology), J.E. Craft (Medicine), J.D. Dziura (Emergency Medicine), D.A. Fiellin (Medicine), T.M. Gill (Medicine), F. Gorelick (Medicine), J.R. Gruen (Pediatrics), H.M. Krumholz (Medicine), C.R. Parikh (Medicine), E.D. Shapiro (Pediatrics), G. Tellides (Surgery), M.E. Tinetti (Medicine)

Associate Professor L.S. Dugdale

IMED 625a, Principles of Clinical Research The purpose of this intensive two-week course is to provide an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented clinical research. Topics include competing objectives of clinical research, principles of observational studies, principles of clinical trials, principles of meta-analysis, interpretation of diagnostic tests, prognostic studies, causal inference, qualitative research methods, and decision analysis. Sessions generally combine a lecture on the topic with discussion of articles that are distributed in advance of the sessions. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks, July 23–August 3, 2018. E.D. Shapiro, D.A. Fiellin

IMED 630a, Ethical Issues in Biomedical Research This term-long course addresses topics that are central to the conduct of biomedical research, including the ethics of clinical investigation, conflicts of interest, misconduct in research, data acquisition, and protection of research subjects. Practical sessions cover topics such as collaborations with industry, publication and peer review, responsible authorship, and mentoring relationships. Satisfactory completion of this course fulfills the NIH requirement for training in Responsible Conduct of Research. Format consists of lecture presentation followed by discussion. Consent of instructor required. J.E. Craft

IMED 635a, Directed Reading in Investigative Medicine An independent study course for first-year students in the Investigative Medicine program. Topics are chosen by the student, and reading lists are provided by faculty for weekly meetings to discuss articles. Four sessions are required; dates/times by arrangement. Consent of instructor required.

IMED 645a, Introduction to Biostatistics in Clinical Investigation The course provides an introduction to statistical concepts and techniques commonly encountered in medical research. Previous course work in statistics or experience with statistical packages is not a requirement. Topics to be discussed include study design, probability, comparing sample means and proportions, survival analysis, and sample size/power calculations. The computer lab incorporates lecture content into practical application by introducing the statistical software package SPSS to describe and analyze data. Consent of instructor required. Two weeks, July 9–20, 2018. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 655b, Writing Your Career Development (K-type) Grant In this term-long course, students gain intensive, practical experience in evaluating and preparing grant proposals, including introduction to NIH study section format. The course gives new clinical investigators the essential tools to design and initiate their own proposals for obtaining grants to do research and to develop their own careers. The course is limited to students who plan to submit grant proposals for a K-type mentored career development award. Attendance and active participation are required. There may be spaces to audit the course. Consent of instructor required. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 660a, Methods in Clinical Research, Part I This yearlong course (with IMED 661 and 662), presented by the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, presents in depth the methodologies used in patient-oriented research, including methods in biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, health services research, community-based participatory research, and health policy. Consent of instructor required. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 661a, Methods in Clinical Research, Part II This yearlong course (with IMED 660 and 662), presented by the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, presents in depth the methodologies used in patient-oriented research, including methods in biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, health services research, community-based participatory research, and health policy. Consent of instructor required. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 662b, Methods in Clinical Research, Part III This yearlong course (with IMED 660 and 661), presented by the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, presents in depth the methodologies used in patient-oriented research, including methods in biostatistics, clinical epidemiology, health services research, community-based participatory research, and health policy. Consent of instructor required. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 670b, Writing Your First Independent Investigator-Initiated (R-type) Grant In this term-long course, students gain intensive, practical experience in evaluating and preparing grant proposals, including discussion of NIH study section format. The course is particularly designed to help investigators in the “K to R” transition period. The course is limited to students who plan to submit an R-type (e.g., R01 or R21) grant, as well as VA and foundation grant proposals. Attendance and active participation are required. Consent of instructor required. E.D. Shapiro

IMED 680b/B&BS 680b, Topics in Human Investigation The course teaches students about the process through which novel therapeutics are designed, clinically tested, and approved for human use. It is divided into two main components, with the first devoted to moving a chemical agent from the bench to the clinic, and the second to outlining the objectives and methods of conducting clinical trials according to the FDA approval process. The first component describes aspects of structure-based drug design and offers insight into how the drug discovery process is conducted in the pharmaceutical industry. The format includes background lectures with discussions, labs, and computer tutorials. The background lectures include a historical perspective on drug discovery, the current paradigm, and important considerations for future success. The second component of the course provides students with knowledge of the basic tools of clinical investigation and how new drugs are tested in humans. A series of lectures and discussions provides an overview of the objectives, research strategies, and methods of conducting patient-oriented research, with a focus on design of trials to test therapeutics. Each student is required to participate (as an observer) in an HIC review, in addition to active participation in class. Consent of instructor required. J.E. Craft

IMED 900a and 901b, Independent Research

Laboratory Medicine

PS 210, 203.688.2286

http://medicine.yale.edu/labmed

Professors A. Baumgarten (Emeritus), S.M. Campbell, S. Chang, R.K. Donabedian (Emeritus), S.D. Hudnall (Pathology), P.I. Jatlow (Emeritus), P.B. Kavathas, D.S. Krause, M. Landry, J.A. Longtine, P. McPhedran (Emeritus), H.M. Rinder, J.L. Sklar (Pathology), B.R. Smith (Chair), E.L. Snyder, G.E. Stack, P.J. Tattersall

Associate Professors T. Eid, S.C. Eisenbarth, J. Hendrickson, J.G. Howe, C. Tormey

Assistant Professors J.M. El-Khoury, E.F. Foxman, E. Gehrie (Adjunct), R. Harb, R.G. Hauser, D.R. Peaper, A. Siddon, R. Torres, A.J. Williams (Adjunct), M.L. Xu (Pathology)

Instructors B. Bahar, A. Gokhale

Senior Research Scientists G. Anderson (Child Study Center), S.F. Cotmore

Research Scientist R. Rai

Associate Research Scientists A. Bersenev, L. Devine, P. Gu, D. Liu, J. Liu, Y. Lu, I.S. Mihaylov, E.M. Olson, P. Zhang

Lecturers D.J. Barchi, P.E. Marone, R.L. Ross

LMED 131, Laboratory Medicine Clinical Elective This elective offers rotations through the clinical laboratories, including Blood Bank, Therapeutic Apheresis, Clinical Chemistry, Toxicology, Hematology and Coagulation, Flow Cytometry, Immunology, Molecular Diagnostics, Microbiology, and Virology. Students work closely with residents, fellows, attending physicians, and laboratory staff; work up clinical cases under supervision; and attend morning report, case conference, journal club, clinical rounds, and didactic sessions. Students also have the opportunity to work with the resident on call for at least one weekend day during the elective. Students can rotate through all laboratories or focus on specific laboratories of interest. The goals of the elective are to learn appropriate usage and interpretation of laboratory tests, and to gain a better understanding of the theoretical and clinical underpinnings of laboratory medicine. This elective is appropriate for students considering a career in laboratory medicine or combined laboratory medicine and pathology, but also for all students who will use clinical laboratory testing in their careers. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: M. Landry

LMED 619/PATH 619, Anatomic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Combined Elective The goals for anatomic pathology are to understand the basic principles of diagnostic anatomic pathology and its role in clinical medicine. The goals for laboratory medicine are to learn appropriate usage and interpretation of laboratory tests and to gain a better understanding of the theoretical, technological, and clinical underpinnings of laboratory medicine. This elective is appropriate for students considering a career in laboratory medicine and/or pathology, and for all students who will use laboratory and pathology tests in their careers. One or two students every four weeks. Director: A. Adeniran

Laboratory Medicine Sessions The purpose of the Laboratory Medicine Sessions is to introduce third-year medical students and PA students to basic concepts of laboratory diagnosis. On the first afternoon of their Internal Medicine clerkship at Yale New Haven Hospital, students rotate through four laboratories—Chemistry, Hematology, Blood Bank, and Microbiology/Virology—where faculty demonstrate principles of laboratory medicine using clinical case materials. Different test methods and clinical cases are presented. M. Landry and associates

Microbial Pathogenesis

BCMM 336E, 203.737.2404

http://medicine.yale.edu/micropath

Professors M. Cappello (Pediatrics), E. Fikrig (Medicine), J.E. Galán (Chair), E. Groisman, B.I. Kazmierczak (Medicine), W.H. Mothes, C.R. Roy

Associate Professors C. Ben Mamoun (Medicine), C.S. Dela Cruz (Medicine), A. Goodman, R.M. Johnson (Medicine), P. Kumar (Medicine), B.D. Lindenbach, J. Liu, J.D. MacMicking, R. Sutton (Medicine)

Assistant Professors Y. Ho, H. Rego

Associate Research Scientists C.C. Butan, D. Chetrit, J. Choi, E. Crabill, C. Fowler, X. Gao, B. Kim, P. Kumar, M.D. Lara-Tejero, M. Pontes, H.N. Ramanathan, G.E. Townsend, P.D. Uchil, J. Yeom, S. Zhang, D. Zheng

The following courses in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences are open to medical students with permission of the DGS.

MBIO 530a/IBIO 530a/MCDB 530a, Biology of the Immune System The development of the immune system. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune recognition. Effector responses against pathogens. Immunologic memory and vaccines. Human diseases including allergy, autoimmunity, cancer, immunodeficiency, HIV/AIDS. E.R. Meffre

MBIO 561a/CB&B 561a/MB&B 561a/MCDB 561a/PHYS 561a, Introduction to Dynamical Systems in Biology Study of the analytic and computational skills needed to model genetic networks and protein signaling pathways. Review of basic biochemical concepts including chemical reactions, ligand binding to receptors, cooperativity, and Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Deep exploration of biological systems including: kinetics of RNA and protein synthesis and degradation; transcription activators and repressors; lyosogeny/lysis switch of lambda phage and the roles of cooperativity and feedback; network motifs such as feed-forward networks and how they shape response dynamics; cell signaling, MAP kinase networks and cell fate decisions; bacterial chemotaxis; and noise in gene expression and phenotypic variability. Students learn to model using MATLAB in a series of in-class hackathons that illustrate biological examples discussed in lectures. D. Clark, J. Howard, K. Miller-Jensen

MBIO 601b, Fundamentals of Research: Responsible Conduct of Research A weekly seminar presented by faculty trainers on topics relating to proper conduct of research. Required of first-year Immunobiology students and training grant-funded postdocs. Pass/Fail.

MBIO 670a, 671b, 672b, Laboratory Rotations Rotation in three laboratories. Required of all first-year graduate students. W.H. Mothes

MBIO 680b/EMD 680b, Advanced Topics in Tropical Parasitic Diseases An introductory topic-based course in modern parasitology. For each topic there is an introductory lecture followed by a journal club-like discussion session of relevant papers selected from the literature. The course provides an introduction to basic biological concepts of parasitic eukaryotes causing diseases in humans. Topics include strategies used by parasitic eukaryotes to establish infections in the host and approaches to disease control, through either chemotherapy, vaccines, or genomics. In addition, emphasis is placed on evaluating the quality and limitation of scientific publications and developing skills in scientific communication. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. C. Tschudi

MBIO 685b, Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis This interdisciplinary course focuses on current topics related to host-pathogen interactions. Each week a lecture is given on the topic, followed by student presentations of seminal papers in the field. All participants are required to present a paper. A. Goodman

MBIO 686a, Bacterial Determinants of Pathogenesis The course provides an introduction to basic principles in bacterial pathogenesis. Topics focus on the bacterial determinants mediating infection and pathogenesis, as well as strategies to prevent and treat diseases. Each week a lecture is given on the topic, followed by student presentations of seminal papers in the field. All participants are required to present a paper. E. Groisman

MBIO 700b, Seminal Papers on the Foundations of Modern Microbiology A required course for Microbiology first- and second-year students; not for credit. The course is offered every other year, alternating with MBIO 703, so that it can be taken once during each student’s tenure in the program. Students present and discuss papers describing fundamental discoveries in areas related to microbiology. The goal is to familiarize students with the process of scientific discovery, and with the history of major developments in the field. Topics include important discoveries involving major human pathogens, fundamental processes in molecular biology, and the development of technology that has a major impact on current biomedical research. P. Kumar

MBIO 701a and 702b, Research in Progress All students, beginning in their third year, are required to present their research once a year at the Graduate Student Research in Progress. These presentations are intended to give each student practice in presenting the student’s own work before a sympathetic but critical audience and to familiarize the faculty with the research. W.H. Mothes

MBIO 703a and 704b, Microbiology Seminar Series All students are required to attend all Microbiology seminars scheduled throughout the academic year. Microbiologists from around the world are invited to describe their research. W.H. Mothes

[MBIO 705b, Evasion of Host Defense by Viruses, Bacteria, and Eukaryotic Parasites The course, in student seminar format, is required of all first- and second-year Microbiology graduate students. Subjects include strategies employed by viruses, bacteria, or eukaryotic parasites to evade either cell intrinsic defenses, such as programmed cell death or innate immune sensing, or responses operating at the level of the organism, such as the adaptive immune response.]

[MBIO 734b/GENE 734b/MB&B 734b, Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses Lecture course with emphasis on mechanisms of viral replication, oncogenic transformation, and virus-host cell interactions.]

Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry

336 Bass, 203.432.5662; SHM C106, 203.785.4595

http://medicine.yale.edu/mbb

Professors K.S. Anderson (Pharmacology), S.J. Baserga, S. Chang (Laboratory Medicine), E.M. De La Cruz, D.C. DiMaio (Genetics), D.M. Engelman, A. Garen, M.B. Gerstein, N.F. Grindley (Emeritus), M.W. Hochstrasser (Chair), J. Howard, A.J. Koleske, W.H. Konigsberg, M. Lemmon (Pharmacology), P. Lengyel (Emeritus), I.G. Miller (Pediatrics), A.D. Miranker, K. Neugebauer, L.J. Regan, K.M. Reinisch (Cell Biology), D.G. Schatz (Immunobiology), R.G. Shulman (Emeritus), F.J. Sigworth (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), D.G. Söll, M.J. Solomon, J.A. Steitz, T.A. Steitz, S.A. Strobel, P. Sung, K.R. Williams, C. Zimmer (Adjunct)

Associate Professors T.J. Bogon (Pharmacology), W.V. Gilbert, M.R. Koelle, C. Schlieker, M. Simon, C.V. Sindelar, S. Takyar (Medicine), H. Wang (Adjunct), Y. Xiong

Assistant Professors J. Berro, E. Karatekin (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), N. Malvankar, C. Paulsen

Senior Research Scientist N.D. Grindley

Research Scientists J. Burton, W. Cao, E.J. Folta-Stogniew, T.T. Lam, J.S. Rozowsky, K. Tycowski, J. Wang, S. Wu (Pharmacology)

Associate Research Scientists A. Alexandrov, J. Daley, J. Deacon, C.M. Hickey, D.A. Hiller, S. Kumar, Y. Kwon, F. Liang, B. Liu, S. Liu, X. Liu, I. Lomakin, S. Lou, S. Melnikov, D. Ostapenko, R. Park, N. Rauniyar, N. Reynolds, A. Sachpatzidis, A. Sevostiyanova, S. Tausta, P. Tsai, G. Wang, J. Warrell, X. Xue, S. Yalcin, J. Zhang, W. Zhao, Y. Zuo

Lecturers I. Baine (Pathology), A. Belperron (Medicine), T. Kim (Medicine), A.B. Pawashe, J. Weinstein (Medicine)

MB&B 500a/MCDB 500a, Biochemistry An introduction to the biochemistry of animals, plants, and microorganisms, emphasizing the relations of chemical principles and structure to the evolution and regulation of living systems. R.R. Breaker, D.M. Engelman

[MB&B 517b/ENAS 517b/MCDB 517b/PHYS 517b, Methods and Logic in Interdisciplinary Research This half-term PEB class is intended to introduce students to integrated approaches to research. Each week, the first of two sessions is student-led, while the second session is led by faculty with complementary expertise and discusses papers that use different approaches to the same topic (for example, physical and biological or experiment and theory). Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Required of students in PEB.]

MB&B 520a, Boot Camp Biology An intensive introduction to biological nomenclature, systems, processes, and techniques for graduate students with previous backgrounds in non-biological fields including physics, engineering, and computer science who wish to perform graduate research in the biological sciences. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Required of students in PEB. C. O’Hern

MB&B 523b/CB&B 523b/ENAS 541b/PHYS 523b, Biological Physics The course has two aims: (1) to introduce students to the physics of biological systems and (2) to introduce students to the basics of scientific computing. The course focuses on studies of a broad range of biophysical phenomena including diffusion, polymer statistics, protein folding, macromolecular crowding, cell motion, and tissue development using computational tools and methods. Intensive tutorials are provided for MATLAB including basic syntax, arrays, for-loops, conditional statements, functions, plotting, and importing and exporting data. S. Mochrie

MB&B 561a/CB&B 561a/MBIO 561a/MCDB 561a/PHYS 561a, Introduction to Dynamical Systems in Biology Study of the analytic and computational skills needed to model genetic networks and protein signaling pathways. Review of basic biochemical concepts including chemical reactions, ligand binding to receptors, cooperativity, and Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Deep exploration of biological systems including: kinetics of RNA and protein synthesis and degradation; transcription activators and repressors; lyosogeny/lysis switch of lambda phage and the roles of cooperativity and feedback; network motifs such as feed-forward networks and how they shape response dynamics; cell signaling, MAP kinase networks and cell fate decisions; bacterial chemotaxis; and noise in gene expression and phenotypic variability. Students learn to model using MATLAB in a series of in-class hackathons that illustrate biological examples discussed in lectures. D. Clark, J. Howard, K. Miller-Jensen

MB&B 562b/AMTH 765b/CB&B 562b/ENAS 561b/MCDB 562b/PHYS 562b, Dynamical Systems in Biology This course covers advanced topics in computational biology. How do cells compute, how do they count and tell time, how do they oscillate and generate spatial patterns? Topics include time-dependent dynamics in regulatory, signal-transduction, and neuronal networks; fluctuations, growth, and form; mechanics of cell shape and motion; spatially heterogeneous processes; diffusion. This year, the course spends roughly half its time on mechanical systems at the cellular and tissue level, and half on models of neurons and neural systems in computational neuroscience. Prerequisite: MCDB 561a or equivalent, or a 200-level biology course, or permission of the instructor. T. Emonet, J. Howard

MB&B 591a/ENAS 991a/MCDB 591a/PHYS 991a, Integrated Workshop This required course for students in PEB involves hands-on laboratory modules with students working in pairs. A biology student is paired with a physics or engineering student; a computation/theory student is paired with an experimental student. The modules are devised so that a range of skills is acquired, and students learn from each other. Modules are hosted in faculty laboratories. Receives no course credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. With permission of the DGS, can be used by PEB students to replace the third rotation of MB&B 650 but will receive no separate course credit toward MB&B course requirements. C. O’Hern, M. Bosenberg, M.B. Gerstein, S. Holley, N. Malvankar, M. Murrell, M. Venkadesan

MB&B 600a, Principles of Biochemistry I Discussion of the physical, structural, and functional properties of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, three major classes of molecules in living organisms. Energy metabolism, hormone signaling, and muscle contraction as examples of complex biological processes whose underlying mechanisms can be understood by identifying and analyzing the molecules responsible for these phenomena. M.R. Koelle, E.M. De La Cruz, C. Paulsen, M. Simon

MB&B 601b, Principles of Biochemistry II A continuation of MB&B 600a that considers the chemistry and metabolism of nucleic acids, the mechanism and regulation of protein and nucleic acid synthesis, and selected topics in macromolecular biochemistry. C. Schlieker, K. Neugebauer

MB&B 602a/CBIO 602a/MCDB 602a, Molecular Cell Biology A comprehensive introduction to the molecular and mechanistic aspects of cell biology for graduate students in all programs. Emphasizes fundamental issues of cellular organization, regulation, biogenesis, and function at the molecular level. Prerequisites: none, but some knowledge of basic cell biology and biochemistry is assumed. Students who have not taken courses in these areas can prepare by reading relevant sections in basic molecular cell biology texts. We recommend Pollard et al., Cell Biology (3rd ed., 2016), Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell (6th ed., 2014), or Lodish et al., Molecular Cell Biology (8th edition, 2016). C.P. Lusk, C.G. Burd, M.J. Caplan, P. De Camilli, N. Dimitrova, V. Horsley, M. King, T. Melia, T.D. Pollard, J.E. Rothman, M.A. Schwartz, J. Van Wolfswinkel

MB&B 625a/GENE 625a/MCDB 625a, Basic Concepts of Genetic Analysis The universal principles of genetic analysis in eukaryotes are discussed in lectures. Students also read a small selection of primary papers illustrating the very best of genetic analysis and dissect them in detail in the discussion sections. While other Yale graduate molecular genetics courses emphasize molecular biology, this course focuses on the concepts and logic underlying modern genetic analysis. J. Lu

MB&B 630b/MCDB 630b, Biochemical and Biophysical Approaches in Molecular and Cellular Biology This course introduces the theory and application of biochemical and bio­physical methods to study the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The course considers the basic physical chemistry required in cellular and molecular biology but does not require a previous course in physical chemistry. One class per week is a lecture introducing a topic. The second class is a discussion of one or two research papers utilizing those methods. Does not count for graduate course credit for BQBS graduate students. T.D. Pollard, K.M. Reinisch

MB&B 635a/ENAS 518a, Quantitative Approaches in Biophysics and Biochemistry The course offers an introduction to quantitative methods relevant to analysis and interpretation of biophysical and biochemical data. Topics covered include statistical testing, data presentation, and error analysis; introduction to dynamical systems; analysis of large datasets; and Fourier analysis in signal/image processing and macromolecular structural studies. The course also includes an introduction to basic programming skills and data analysis using MATLAB. Real data from research groups in MB&B are used for practice. Prerequisites: MATH 120 and MB&B 600a or equivalents, or permission of the instructors. J. Berro, J. Howard, Y. Xiong

MB&B 650a and 651b, Lab Rotation for First-Year Students Required of all first-year BQBS graduate students. Credit for full year only. Y. Xiong

MB&B 675a, Seminar for First-Year Students Required of all first-year BQBS graduate students. Y. Xiong, K.S. Anderson

MB&B 676b, Responsible Conduct of Research Designed for students who are beginning to do scientific research. The course seeks to describe some of the basic features of life in contemporary research and some of the personal and professional issues that researchers encounter in their work. Approximately six sessions, run in a seminar/discussion format. Required of all first-year BQBS graduate students. S.J. Baserga, J. Berro, M.B. Gerstein, W.V. Gilbert, J. Howard, K. Neugebauer, C. Schlieker, D.G. Söll

MB&B 710b/C&MP 710b, Electron Cryo-Microscopy for Protein Structure Determination Understanding cellular function requires structural and biochemical studies at an ever-increasing level of complexity. The course is an introduction to the concepts and applications of high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. This rapidly emerging new technique is the only method that allows biological macromolecules to be studied at all levels of resolution from cellular organization to near atomic detail. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. F.J. Sigworth, C.V. Sindelar

MB&B 720a, Macromolecular Structure and Biophysical Analysis An in-depth analysis of macromolecular structure and its elucidation using modern methods of structural biology and biochemistry. Topics include architectural arrangements of proteins, RNA, and DNA; practical methods in structural analysis; and an introduction to diffraction and NMR. Prerequisites: physical chemistry (may be taken concurrently) and biochemistry. A.D. Miranker, Y. Xiong

MB&B 730a, Methods and Logic in Molecular Biology The course examines fundamental concepts in molecular biology through intense critical analysis of the primary literature. The objective is to develop primary literature reading and critical thinking skills. Required of and open only to first-year graduate students in BQBS. M.J. Solomon, S. Holley, A.J. Koleske, C. Schlieker

[MB&B 734b/GENE 734b/MBIO 734b, Molecular Biology of Animal Viruses Lecture course with emphasis on mechanisms of viral replication, oncogenic transformation, and virus-host cell interactions.]

MB&B 743b/GENE 743b/MCDB 743b, Advanced Eukaryotic Molecular Biology Selected topics in transcriptional control, regulation of chromatin structure, mRNA processing, mRNA stability, RNA interference, translation, protein degradation, DNA replication, DNA repair, site-specific DNA recombination, somatic hypermutation. Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor. M.W. Hochstrasser, W.V. Gilbert

MB&B 749a, Medical Impact of Basic Science Consideration of examples of recent discoveries in basic science that have elucidated the molecular origins of disease or that have suggested new therapies for disease. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles on which these advances rely. Reading is from the primary scientific and medical literature, with emphasis on developing the ability to read this literature critically. Aimed primarily at undergraduates. Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor. May not be taken by MB&B B.S./MS. students for graduate course credit. J.A. Steitz, D. DiMaio, W.V. Gilbert, I.G. Miller, K. Neugebauer, D.G. Schatz, T.A. Steitz

MB&B 750b, Biological Membranes Biological membranes and their resident proteins are essential for cellular function; yet comparatively little is known about their structure and dynamics. This class provides an introduction to the biochemistry and biophysics of lipids, lipid bilayers, and lipid-derived second messengers. In addition, structural as well as functional aspects of the different classes of membrane proteins are discussed along with an outline of experimental approaches used to achieve an understanding of membrane protein structure and function at a molecular level. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Prerequisite: biochemistry. D.M. Engelman

MB&B 752b/CB&B 752b/CPSC 752b/MCDB 752b, Biomedical Data Science: Mining and Modeling Biomedical data science encompasses the analysis of gene sequences, macromolecular structures, and functional genomics data on a large scale. It represents a major practical application for modern techniques in data mining and simulation. Specific topics to be covered include sequence alignment, large-scale processing, next-generation sequencing data, comparative genomics, phylogenetics, biological database design, geometric analysis of protein structure, molecular-dynamics simulation, biological networks, normalization of microarray data, mining of functional genomics data sets, and machine-learning approaches to data integration. Prerequisites: biochemistry and calculus, or permission of the instructor. M.B. Gerstein

MB&B 753b, Biomedical Data Science: Mining Biomedical data science encompasses the analysis of gene sequences, macromolecular structures, and functional genomics data on a large scale. It represents a major practical application for modern techniques in data mining and simulation. This module of the full-term course MB&B 752b focuses on the first of these techniques, data mining. Specific topics include sequence alignment, comparative genomics and phylogenetics, biological databases, microarray normalization, and machine-learning approaches to data integration. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Prerequisites: biochemistry and calculus, or permission of the instructor. M.B. Gerstein

MB&B 754b, Biomedical Data Science: Modeling Biomedical data science encompasses the analysis of gene sequences, macromolecular structures, and functional genomics data on a large scale. It represents a major practical application for modern techniques in data mining and simulation. This module of the full-term course MB&B 752b focuses on the second of these techniques, simulation. Specific topics to be covered include geometric analysis of protein structure, molecular-dynamics simulation, and biological networks. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Prerequisites: biochemistry and calculus, or permission of the instructor. M.B. Gerstein

[MB&B 760a, Principles of Macromolecular Crystallography Rigorous introduction to the principles of macromolecular crystallography, aimed at students who are planning to carry out structural studies involving X-ray crystallography or who want to obtain in-depth knowledge for critical analysis of published crystal structures. Counts as 0.5 credit toward MB&B graduate course requirements. Prerequisites: physical chemistry and biochemistry.]

MB&B 800a, Advanced Topics in Molecular Medicine The seminar, which covers topics in the molecular mechanisms of disease, illustrates timely issues in areas such as protein chemistry and enzymology, intermediary metabolism, nucleic acid biochemistry, gene expression, and virology. M.D. and M.D./Ph.D. students only. Prerequisite: biochemistry (may be taken concurrently). S.J. Baserga, W.H. Konigsberg

MB&B 900a or 901b, Reading Course in Biophysics Directed reading course in biophysics. Term paper required. By arrangement with faculty. Open only to graduate students in MB&B. Please see syllabus for additional requirements. Y. Xiong

MB&B 902a or 903b, Reading Course in Molecular Genetics Directed reading course in molecular genetics. Term paper required. By arrangement with faculty. Open only to graduate students in MB&B. Please see syllabus for additional requirements. Y. Xiong

MB&B 905b, Reading Course in Biochemistry Directed reading course in biochemistry. Term paper required. By arrangement with faculty. Open only to graduate students in MB&B. Please see syllabus for additional requirements. Y. Xiong

Neurology

LCI 910, 203.737.1860

http://medicine.yale.edu/neurology

Professors T. Allison (Emeritus), J.M. Baehring, H. Blumenfeld, J. Booss (Emeritus), D.M. Greer, J. Grutzendler, D. Hafler (Chair), L.J. Hirsch, B. Jabbari (Emeritus), R.D. Kerns (Psychiatry), J.D. Kocsis, E.D. Louis, R.H. Mattson (Emeritus), L.R. Ment (Pediatrics), J.W. Prichard (Emeritus), P. Rakic (Neuroscience), B.A. Shaywitz (Pediatrics), S. Spudich, S.M. Strittmatter, C.H. Van Dyck (Psychiatry), S.G. Waxman

Associate Professors N. Bamford, W. Cafferty, S.S. Chandra, C. Cotsapas, S. Ghosh, B.B. Koo, D.S. Navaratnam, K.C. O’Connor, H.S. Patwa, O.A. Petroff, D. Pitt, L. Sansing, J. Schindler, K.N. Sheth, J. Thomas

Assistant Professors M. Alkawadri, H.H. Altalib, H. Amin, K.P. Becker, V. Benitez (Pediatrics), C.F. Benjamin, F.C. Brown, J.L. Dearborn-Tomazos, K. Destefano, K. Detyniecki, M. Dhakar (Adjunct), D.B. DiCapua, M. Dominguez-Villar, G. Falcone, P. Farooque, A.A. Fisayo, E.J. Gilmore, C.H. Gottschalk, A. Herlopian, D.Y. Hwang, C. Ionita (Pediatrics), B. Keung, B. Khokhar, V. Knight (Pediatrics), D. Kuruvilla, E. Longbrake, C. Loomis, C.B. Maciel (Adjunct), N. Makhani (Pediatrics), E.G. Marcolini (Emergency Medicine), D. Matuskey (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), K.A. McVicar (Pediatrics), A.L. Meyer (Adjunct), J.J. Moeller, S. Novella, R. Nowak, A. Patel, N.H. Petersen, I.H. Quraishi, B. Roy, A. Salardini, E.S. Sharp, J.J. Sico, A. Sivaraju, A.S. Tinaz, H. Tokuno, B. Tolchin, D.C. Volpe, S. Wesley, H.P. Zaveri

Instructors Z.A. Corbin, A. Fesharaki-Zadeh (Psychiatry), A.A. Kohli (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), M. Lincoln, S. Schaefer

Senior Research Scientist S.D. Dib-Hajj

Research Scientist J. Bai

Associate Research Scientists Y. Ai, C. Chang, B. Dash, M. Estacion, C. Gomis Perez, E.C. Gunther, N.C. Hernandez, R. Hill, J. Huang, K. Lankford, S. Lee, M. Mitrovic, G.D. Ponath, K. Raddassi, Y. Sekine, D. Sizova, T. Sumida, A.M. Szekely (Genetics), H. Takahashi, A. Tan, X. Wang, S.A. Wilson, L. Zhang, Y. Zhang, P. Zhao

Associate Clinical Professors N.S. Werdiger, R.S. Young (Pediatrics)

Assistant Clinical Professors R. Duckrow, D. Machado, D. Richardson, M. Rosen (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), M.J. Stransky

Clinical Instructor V. Shih (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation)

Lecturer L. Bandaru

MD 2025 (NEUR)/MD 2000 (IM), Medical Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes internal medicine (eight weeks) and neurology (four weeks) clinical components. Throughout the clerkship, students participate in integrated experiences that address the themes related to hospital-based care such as management of acute disease, diagnostic skills, transitions of care, quality improvement, and organ systems. Directors: D.B. DiCapua, D.W. Dunne

NEUR 200, Neurology Ward Service Elective Under appropriate supervision, students directly examine, diagnose, and manage patients on the neurology ward service at Yale New Haven Hospital; attend daily teaching rounds; and attend a series of special didactic conferences on the most important topics in neurology. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: D.B. DiCapua

NEUR 201, Neurology Consult Service Elective Under the supervision of the neurology consult resident and attending physician, students evaluate patients referred for neurologic consultation from other inpatient services at Yale New Haven Hospital. Students also participate in academic activities of the department. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: D.B. DiCapua

NEUR 202, Neurology Clinical Elective (Tailored) Students work directly with attending faculty, chief residents, and junior residents as well as other medical students, rotators, and support staff. A series of special didactic conferences on the most important topics in neurology are provided, and the student also participates in departmental conferences and seminars. An assessment of history taking, neurological examining skills, and problem assessment is performed by an attending faculty member with each student. At times, other customized electives may be designed with the program director in areas such as epilepsy, stroke, movement disorders, neuroimmunology, etc., as well as clinical neurophysiology and research methods. Prerequisite: completion of the neurology portion of Medical Approach to the Patient. One student every two weeks. Director: D.B. DiCapua

NEUR 400, Neurology Subinternship The goal of this subinternship is for the student to recognize and understand less common neurological problems, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders, neuromuscular diseases, dementia, central nervous system infections, and tumors of the nervous system. At times, other customized subinternships may be designed with the program director in areas such as epilepsy, stroke, movement disorders, neuromuscular medicine, neuroimmunology, and neurocritical care. Prerequisite: completion of the neurology portion of Medical Approach to the Patient. One student every four weeks. Director: D.B. DiCapua

Neuroscience

SHM C303, 203.785.4323

http://medicine.yale.edu/neuroscience

Professors A.F. Arnsten, H. Blumenfeld (Neurology), M.C. Crair, P. De Camilli, S. Diano (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), R.J. DiLeone (Psychiatry), R.S. Duman (Psychiatry), J.E. Gelernter (Psychiatry), C.A. Greer (Neurosurgery), J. Grutzendler (Neurology), M. Gunel (Neurosurgery), J. Hirsch (Psychiatry), T.L. Horvath (Comparative Medicine), E.A. Jonas (Medicine), J.D. Kocsis (Neurology), A.J. Koleske (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), J.H. Krystal (Psychiatry), R.H. LaMotte (Anesthesiology), D. Lee, C. Leranth (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), P.J. Lombroso (Child Study Center), D.A. McCormick (Emeritus), G.D. Pearlson (Psychiatry), M. Picciotto (Psychiatry), V.A. Pieribone (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), M.N. Potenza (Psychiatry), P. Rakic, J. Santos-Sacchi (Surgery), N. Sestan, G.M. Shepherd, R. Sinha (Psychiatry), S.M. Strittmatter, S. Tomita, F.M. Vaccarino (Child Study Center), C.H. Van Dyck (Psychiatry), S.G. Waxman (Neurology), Z. Zhou (Ophthalmology & Visual Science)

Associate Professors M. Alreja (Psychiatry), C.J. Bruce, J.A. Cardin, S.S. Chandra, D. Colon-Ramos, K.P. Cosgrove (Psychiatry), M. Hammarlund, M.J. Higley, I. Kim (Ophthalmology & Visual Science), I. Levy (Comparative Medicine), C. Li (Psychiatry), J. Lim, A. Louvi (Neurosurgery), D.S. Navaratnam (Neurology), M.L. Schwartz, J.V. Verhagen

Assistant Professors M.O. Dietrich (Comparative Medicine), G. Dragoi (Psychiatry), J.L. Gerrard (Neurosurgery), E. Gracheva, J. Guo, E. Hoffman (Child Study Center), M. Jadi (Psychiatry), C.A. Kwan (Psychiatry), J. Murray (Psychiatry), S. Yogev

Senior Research Scientists N. Carnevale, M. Hines, D.A. McCormick (Neuroscience)

Research Scientists A. Duque, Y. Morozov, L.D. Selemon, M. Wang

Associate Research Scientists J.I. Arellano, Y. Cai, M. Cao, R. Chang, J. Choi, D. Franjic, J. Greenwood, F. Gulden, S. Hayashi, J. Jeanne, N. Kaur, H. Komuro, H. Li, M. Li, L.N. Marenco, R. McDougal, N. Micali, E. Mohns, T.M. Morse, A. Nandy, Q. Perrenoud, S. Pochareddy, B.G. Rash, G. Santpere Baro, L. Shao, M. Shibata, M. Skarica, A. Tebbenkamp, C. Tebbencamp, Y. Wu

[NBIO 532a/INP 532a, Neurobiology of Cortical Systems This is a lecture, reading, and discussion-based course focused on the mammalian cerebral cortex. Students learn about the evolution, development, function, and dysfunction of the cortex. Significant emphasis is placed on examining unique aspects of the cortex, including cortical circuit structure, plasticity, cognition, and models of higher-order cognitive processing. We also examine disease processes in which cortical dysfunction is specifically implicated. Offered every other year. M.C. Crair, D. Lee]

Neurosurgery

TMP 4, 203.785.2805

http://medicine.yale.edu/neurosurgery

Professors J.M. Baehring (Neurology), H. Blumenfeld (Neurology), A. Bordey, R.A. Bronen (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), V.L. Chiang, R.T. Constable (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), N.C. DeLanerolle (Emeritus), C.C. Duncan, C.A. Greer, M. Gunel (Chair), M.H. Johnson (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), C.C. LaMotte (Emeritus), L. Meng (Anesthesiology), J.M. Piepmeier, D.E. Redmond, Jr. (Psychiatry), D.D. Spencer, A.N. Van den Pol

Associate Professors K.M. Abbed, M.L. DiLuna, J.T. King, A. Louvi, C.C. Matouk, J. Schindler, K.N. Sheth (Neurology)

Assistant Professors C. Benjamin, T. Eid (Laboratory Medicine), J.L. Gerrard, K.T. Kahle, M.S. Laurans, J. Moliterno Gunel, P. Tomak, K. Wu, J. Zhou

Instructor R. Grant

Research Scientists E. Erson Omay, K. Mishra, K. Yasuno

Associate Research Scientists B. Bae, T. Barak, M. Chatterjee, S. Coskun, R. Dhaher, A. Ercan-Sencicek, O. Henegariu, L.S. Hsieh, J. Liu, E. Martin-Lopez, S. Nishimura, J.C. Paglino, D. Spergel, X. Zhang

Assistant Clinical Professors J. Bartolomei, P. Doherty, L. Kolb

NEUS 101, Neurosurgery Subinternship The subinternship allows senior medical students the opportunity to vastly extend their breadth of knowledge of neurological diseases and how they are managed both surgically and nonsurgically. Subinterns function essentially as a supervised intern, working closely with the cohesive group of mid-level providers, residents, and attending physicians in the inpatient, outpatient, and operating room settings. Subinterns are expected to participate in the evaluation and management of assigned patients, pre-round with writing of ICU notes, make rounds and attend clinics, assist in ICU procedures and surgeries, and attend academic conferences. Subinterns are expected to present their scholarly work at one of our academic conferences. The service is a busy one, and subinterns will have a wide range of surgical and clinical experiences. Examples of surgeries frequently encountered include, but are not limited to, aneurysm surgery with craniotomy or endovascular coiling or stenting; carotid endarterectomy; pediatric skull and spine reconstruction and repairs; brain tumor surgery, including awake craniotomy, epilepsy surgery, transnasal surgery, and deep brain stimulation; and spine surgery, including minimally invasive and deformity correction surgery. Required of all Yale School of Medicine students planning to enter the match for neurosurgery. Maximum of four students every four weeks. M.L. DiLuna

Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences

FMB 307, 203.785.4212, Janice Crabtree, Manager of Medical Education

http://medicine.yale.edu/obgyn

Professors A.M. Arici, M. Azodi, T.C. Chai (Urology), J.A. Copel, T. D’Hooghe (Adjunct), S. Diano, A.J. Duleba (Adjunct), R.A. Ehrenkranz (Pediatrics), O. Harmanli, S.A. Higgins (Therapeutic Radiology), R.B. Hochberg (Emeritus), T.L. Horvath (Comparative Medicine), P. Hui (Pathology), E.I. Kohorn (Emeritus), C. Leranth, P.E. Levi Setti (Adjunct), H. Lin (Cell Biology), W.E. Longo (Surgery), G.G. Mor, S. Munne (Adjunct), K. Oktay (Adjunct), M.J. Paidas, L. Pal, P. Patrizio, S. Pecorelli (Adjunct), A.D. Santin, P.M. Sarrel (Emeritus), P.E. Schwartz, E.U. Seli, H.S. Taylor (Chair), K.A. Yonkers (Psychiatry)

Associate Professors V.M. Abrahams, M.O. Bahtiyar, F. Galerneau, X. Gao (Comparative Medicine), J.B. Henrich (Medicine), G. Huang, Y. Huang, J.L. Illuzzi, H.S. Lipkind, U. Magriples, V. Parkash (Pathology), C.M. Pettker, E. Ratner, L.M. Rickey (Urology), A.K. Sfakianaki, D. Silasi, N.L. Stanwood, X. Xu

Assistant Professors S. Abdel-Razeq, R.S. Bercik, K.H. Campbell, J. Chung (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), J. Cron, V.B. Desai, E.C. Dun, L.L. Fan, M.C. Fishman, C.A. Flannery, A. Gariepy, A.N. Kallen, R. Kaza, P.H. Kodaman, K. Kohari, B. Litkouhi, A. Merriam, O. Onibokun, S. Pathy, S.S. Sheth, M. Silasi, D.H. Stitelman (Surgery), R. Tal, A.V. Vash-Margita, R.J. Welsh, S.D. Whirledge, Y. Yang

Instructors M.G. Acevedo Alvarez, G. Altwerger, R. Calix, V.L. Chase, S. Collins, A. Cutler, J. Deng, A. Desai, M. Dombrowski, V. Flores, O. Grechukhina, C. Han, R. Irani, K. Mehlhaff, G. Menderes, A. Mor, M. Negi, M.J. Pensak, M. Platner, P.M. Popiel, L. Shook, S. Simpson, J. Yeh, S. Zamore

Senior Research Scientists S.M. Guller, R.B. Hochberg, G.B. Huszar, N.S. Stachenfeld

Research Scientists A. Alvero, H.J. Kliman, G. Krikun, Z. Lin, R. Mamillapalli

Associate Research Scientists S. Bellone, J.F. Culhane, D. Kelk, J. Kim, Y. Liu, J. Lo, L. Lundsberg, S. Nichols-Burns, R. Tedja, S. Titus, L. Zammataro, Y. Zhu

Clinical Professors M. Minkin, M. Polan, S. Vermund (Public Health)

Associate Clinical Professor S.J. Fleischman

Assistant Clinical Professors R. Chosak, D.M. Lima

Clinical Instructors M. DiMaio, C. Negron

MD 2150 (OBGY)/MD 2175 (PEDS), Women and Children’s Health Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes clinical components in obstetrics and gynecology and pediatrics. Students participate in six weeks of OB/Gyn and six weeks of pediatrics, with a mix of inpatient and ambulatory clinical experiences in both specialties. Throughout the clerkship students participate in integrated experiences that cover themes such as health and development, preventive care, sexual health, families and communities, health promotion and disease prevention, and perinatal care. All students attend an evening session with the gynecologic teaching associates. Directors: D.C. Hersh, S.R. Pathy; Codirectors: V.B. Desai, C. Boeras

OBGY 107, Maternal Fetal Medicine Subinternship The Maternal Fetal Medicine division offers a four-week high-risk obstetrics elective for fourth-year medical students. The student functions as a subintern and team member in the care of high-risk obstetrical patients at Yale New Haven Hospital. In addition to inpatient duties, the student attends the outpatient clinic once a week. Students also participate in prenatal ultrasound sessions as well as labor and delivery activities. Numerous didactic conferences are held during the rotation. It is recommended that students use the text Williams Obstetrics (Cunningham) to prepare for this experience and for research during the rotation. Evaluation of the student is based on clinical performance, participation at rounds, and the student’s presentation of an evidence-based case review to members of the MFM division. Prerequisite: core Ob/Gyn clerkship. Students are expected to work two weekend days of their choice. One student every four weeks. Director: F. Galerneau

OBGY 108, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Subinternship The Reproductive Endocrine and Infertility (REI) division offers a four-week elective for fourth- and fifth-year students. In addition to gaining knowledge of human reproductive endocrine function, students are introduced to disruptions in physiology and function, which can lead to endocrinological and infertility disorders. Common problems seen in REI practice include female and male infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, polycystic ovarian syndrome, anovulation, amenorrhea, endometriosis, chronic pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and uterine leiomyomas. Exposure to Advanced Reproductive Technologies (ART) is integrated into this elective. In addition to clinical activities in the office and the hospital, students have the opportunity to attend division conferences. Evaluation is based on clinical performance in the office and the operating room, and on an evidence-based presentation on an REI topic of interest. Recommended text: Clinical Gynecological Endocrinology & Infertility (Speroff). Prerequisite: core Ob/Gyn clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: P.H. Kodaman

OBGY 109, Gynecologic Oncology Subinternship The purpose of the gynecologic oncology subinternship is to enhance the student’s knowledge of the diagnosis and management of women with gynecologic malignancies. The student is exposed to all modalities of treatment for gynecologic malignancies including radical gynecological surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The student is expected to be an integral part of the team in the management of the patients admitted to the service. The student admits patients and takes part in their care throughout the subinternship period. In addition to operating room exposure, extensive experience is gained in the postoperative management of these patients. In the ambulatory setting, the student is exposed to the outpatient management of cancer, chemotherapy, and colposcopy. On a weekly basis, the student also attends divisional teaching sessions and the multidisciplinary tumor conference. There is no night call. The recommended text is Clinical Gynecologic Oncology (DiSaia). Prerequisite: core Ob/Gyn clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: E. Ratner

OBGY 112, Family Planning Elective This two- or four-week elective provides hands-on experience in family planning in diverse clinical settings. Family planning clinics provide resources to enable couples to determine whether, when, and how often to have children, with special consideration to birth spacing and maternal and child health. The student is exposed to contraceptive counseling and options counseling (abortion, adoption, parenthood). Contraceptive counseling and care include insertion of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARC, IUDs, and implants). In addition, the student participates in first-trimester ultrasound, medical and surgical abortions, medical and surgical management of early pregnancy failures, and intrauterine fetal demise. Clinical settings include outpatient visits and operating room experience at Yale New Haven Hospital and Planned Parenthood in New Haven. Prerequisite: core Ob/Gyn clerkship. One student every two or four weeks. Director: N.L. Stanwood; A. Gariepy, S.M. Richman

OBGY 203, Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery Service Subinternship Offered by the Section of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery. Students are taught about the normal and abnormal physiology and function of the female pelvic floor and are introduced to the diagnosis and management of female pelvic floor disorders, namely lower urinary tract disorders, pelvic organ prolapse, and defecatory disorders. Common problems encountered by urogynecologists include urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, cystocele, rectocele, uterine prolapse, vaginal vault prolapse after hysterectomy, microscopic hematuria, dyspareunia, interstitial cystitis, anal incontinence, and constipation. Exposure to advanced pelvic floor reconstructive surgery is also integrated into this elective. In addition to clinical activities in the office and the hospital, students have the opportunity to attend section didactics. Evaluation is based on clinical performance in the office and the operating room, participation in didactics, and an evidence-based presentation on a urogynecology topic of interest. Prerequisite: core Ob/Gyn clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: O. Harmanli

Ophthalmology and Visual Science

40 Temple Street, 3rd floor, 203.785.2020

http://medicine.yale.edu/eyes

Professors R.A. Adelman, M. Coca-Prados (Emeritus), M.C. Crair (Neuroscience), N. Daw (Emeritus), L.V. Del Priore (Chair), C. Gonzalez (Emeritus), W.H. Miller (Emeritus), L.J. Rizzolo (Surgery), M.L. Sears (Emeritus), M. Shields (Emeritus), J.H. Sinard (Pathology), V. Vasiliou (Public Health), C.J. Zeiss (Comparative Medicine), D. Zenisek (Cellular & Molecular Physiology), Z. Zhou

Associate Professors J.B. Demb, J.J. Hoh (Public Health), I. Kim, K.M. Stoessel, C. Teng

Assistant Professors J.H. Chow, M. Fields, A.A. Fisayo (Neurology), M. Howard, J.E. Kempton, N.E. Kombo, R. Lim, J. Liu, K. Nwanyanwu, P.C. Palmisano, M. Sohrab

Instructors A. Distefano, A.A. Kohli, F. Makkouk, O. Shakir, A. Shue

Research Scientist H.H. Cai

Associate Research Scientists M. Chen, J. Gong, S. Lee, J. Park

Clinical Professor D.E. Silverstone

Associate Clinical Professors B.M. DeBroff, P. Gaudio, A.D. Rose, G. Shafranov, C.A. Sklar

Assistant Clinical Professors D.A. Bacal, P.J. Branden, N. Chaudhry, A.J. Daccache, P.A. Ecker, J.S. Elman, P.M. Falcone, H.E. Fazzone, J. Geffin, W.I. Larrison, E.S. Lim, J.F. Martone, D. Tom, J.M. Weisz

Clinical Instructors S.B. Castracane, T.H. Cronin, M. Dombrow, O. Faridi, Y. Kostina, D.H. Levinson, P.A. Marks, P.E. Masi, S.W. Meskin, D. Rudich, M.R. Shapiro, J.E. Silbert, A.P. Swan, E.L. Volker

OPHT 120, Ophthalmology and Visual Science Clinical Elective This intensive two- or four-week elective consists of ten half-day sessions per week. Students observe in specialty clinics and ophthalmic surgery. More advanced students evaluate patients in a general ophthalmology clinic. Students are expected to participate in departmental conferences and review independent study material provided by the department. Subspecialty experience includes cornea and external eye disease, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, oculoplastics, retinal disease, and strabismus. By the end of the elective, students should be able to recognize the four most common causes of profound blindness and be able to identify vision-threatening and non-vision-threatening causes of a red eye; perform an external eye exam; use an ophthalmoscope to identify the optic nerve and be able to describe it; and have some familiarity with the slit lamp. Students who do the four-week elective are expected to do a presentation on a topic in ophthalmology at the end of the rotation. Evaluation is based on clinic performance, the case discussions, and the presentation. Teaching settings include the Yale Eye Center; the Yale Health Center; the Eye Clinic at the West Haven VA Medical Center; and the Cornell Scott-Hill Health Center. Prerequisite: second-year ophthalmology module or equivalent. Maximum of three students every two or four weeks. Directors: S.H. Forster, N.E. Kombo

Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation

YPB 133, 203.785.2579

http://medicine.yale.edu/ortho

Professors M.R. Baumgaertner, C.G. Carpenter (Emeritus), T.O. Carpenter (Pediatrics), D.R. Cooperman, J. Costa (Pathology), G.E. Friedlaender, J.N. Grauer (Chair), A.H. Haims (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), M.C. Horowitz, P. Jokl (Emeritus), L.D. Katz (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), K.J. Keggi (Emeritus), F.Y. Lee, M.I. O’Connor, M.M. Panjabi (Emeritus), R.R. Pelker, T.S. Renshaw (Emeritus), B.G. Smith

Associate Professors J.V. Eswarakumar, M.P. Leslie, D.M. Lindskog, M.J. Medvecky, J.S. Reach, L. Rubin, M. Sharkey, C.R. Swigart, P.G. Whang

Assistant Professors C.W. Carter, K. Donohue, J.A. Fretz, D. Frumberg, E.C. Gardner, A. Halim, D. Kovacevic, A.S. Socci, S. Tommasini, R.J. Walls

Instructors A. Boylan, A. Fenoglio, R. Gala, S. Henderson, T. John, H. Kassam, S. Nelson, A. Singla, L.K. Szolomayer

Senior Research Scientists P. Jokl, K.J. Keggi

Associate Research Scientist J. Back

Assistant Clinical Professors D.H. Gibson, G.A. Gorecki, D.C. Novicki, M.M. Pressman, J. Sumner

Clinical Instructors E.J. Carlson, P.M. Marriott

Lecturers L.R. Brenner, M.J. Parisi, B.T. Zazulak

ORTH 104, Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation Subinternship Limited to third, fourth, and fifth clinical years. Students are active members of one of seven orthopaedic teaching teams: Adult Reconstruction and Orthopaedic Oncology, Orthopaedic Trauma and Fracture Care, Pediatric Orthopaedics, Spine Surgery, Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Sports Medicine and Arthroscopic Surgery, and Foot and Ankle Surgery. Students assist in the management of orthopaedic inpatients and receive operating room experience in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Participation in the orthopaedic outpatient clinics provides experience in the evaluation and treatment of common musculoskeletal conditions. It is recommended that students take call with the orthopaedic resident in the emergency room to gain insight into the principles of acute fracture management. Clinic and operating room experiences are supplemented by weekly subspecialty conferences and the residents’ education program. Maximum of five students every four weeks. Director: M.P. Leslie

ORTH 3161, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Introduction This two-week elective provides the fourth-year student with exposure to the specialty of PM&R under the direction of attending physiatrists. Students gain clinical experience and participate in the evaluation and rehabilitation management of patients with various disabling conditions such as stroke, acquired brain injury, amputation, multiple trauma, arthroplasty, acute and chronic musculoskeletal conditions, and spinal cord injury. In addition to management of the medical care of patients with disabilities, students gain an understanding of the rehabilitation team approach, which is an integral part of the overall management of such patients. Students also have the opportunity to participate in the management of patients with acute and chronic pain. Management of a patient’s care through interaction with other health professionals such as neurologists, orthopaedic surgeons, psychiatrists, social workers, occupational therapists, speech and language pathology therapists, and physical therapists is an integral part of the elective. Students participate in the interdisciplinary rehabilitation team meetings held regularly in the inpatient rehabilitation setting and are exposed to the treatment modalities and therapeutic and diagnostic interventions performed by physiatrists. These interventions can include, but are not limited to, therapeutic exercise, therapeutic modalities (heat, cold, functional electrical stimulation, biofeedback), intrathecal baclofen, and therapeutic injection procedures such as interventional spine injections, corticosteroid joint injections, and botulinum toxin injections. Students may also be exposed to diagnostic tools such as electro diagnostic testing (electromyography or EMG and nerve conductions studies) and musculoskeletal ultrasound. Learning to take a comprehensive rehabilitation history and performing complete musculoskeletal and functional examinations are emphasized. Students also have the opportunity to observe their assigned patients during the patient’s course of rehabilitation therapies. Clinical settings may include inpatient consultations in Yale New Haven Hospital (both York Street and St. Raphael campuses); outpatient consultations at the YNHH Center for Musculoskeletal Care in Stamford, Old Saybrook, and/or North Haven; outpatient consultations with the Physiatry group at the West Haven VA Medical Center; and inpatient rehabilitation care of patients admitted to the YNHH inpatient rehabilitation unit (IRU) at the Rehabilitation and Wellness Center located within Milford Hospital. One student every two weeks. Director: M.L. Rosen

Pathology

BML 140, 203.785.3624

http://medicine.yale.edu/pathology

Professors M.W. Bosenberg (Dermatology), R. Bucala (Medicine), S. Chang (Laboratory Medicine), K. Choate (Dermatology), Y. Choi (Emerita), J. Costa, S. Downing (Emeritus), G.E. Friedlaender (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), P.G. Gallagher (Pediatrics), E.J. Glusac, R.J. Homer, S.D. Hudnall, P. Hui, P. Humphrey, D. Jain, M. Kashgarian (Emeritus), J.H. Kim (Emeritus), D.S. Krause (Laboratory Medicine), G. Kupfer (Pediatrics), F.Y. Lee (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), P. Lee (Medicine), J.A. Longtine, J.A. Madri (Emeritus), V.T. Marchesi, J.M. McNiff (Dermatology), W. Min, G. Moeckel, R. Morotti, J.S. Morrow (Chair), J.S. Pober (Immunobiology), M. Prasad, D.L. Rimm, M.E. Robert, J.K. Rose, J.H. Sinard, J.L. Sklar, D.F. Stern, F. Tavassoli (Emeritus), A.B. West (Emeritus), W. Yarbrough (Surgery)

Associate Professors A. Adeniran, D. Braddock, N. Buza, G. Cai, H. Chun (Medicine), O. Colegio (Dermatology), S.E. Cowper (Dermatology), C. Fernandez-Hernando (Comparative Medicine), A. Galan (Dermatology), L. Hao, M. Harigopal, E. Herzog (Medicine), A.J. Huttner, R. Jensen (Therapeutic Radiology), S.H. Kleinstein, Y. Kluger, C.J. Ko (Dermatology), D. Kowalski, M.O. Krauthammer, T. Kyriakides, A. Levi, R.R. Montgomery (Medicine), I. Nalbantoglu, D. Nguyen, V. Parkash, K. Politi, Y. Qyang (Medicine), M.M. Tomayko (Dermatology), N. Wajapeyee, Z. Walther, M. Xu, Q. Yan, X. Zhang

Assistant Professors R. Abi Raad, R. Baldassarri, A.L. Barbieri, R. Bindra (Therapeutic Radiology), V. Bossuyt, R. Celli, P. Cohen, K. Finberg, A. Finkelstein, J.A. Fretz (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), J.A. Gibson, P. Gopal, S. Hattangadi (Pediatrics), S.G. Katz, M. Levine, D. McGuone, D. Myung (Dermatology), M.M. Pinto, E. Reisenbichler, K. Schalper, A. Siddon (Laboratory Medicine), Y. Suarez (Comparative Medicine), S. Vilarinho (Medicine), S. Wong, I. Yildiz

Instructors A. Darbinyan, M. Much, S. Perincheri, O. Snir

Senior Research Scientists Y. Choi, M. Kashgarian, J.H. Kim, J.A. Madri, A.B. West

Research Scientists Y. Bai, P. Gershkovich

Associate Research Scientists A. Arnal Estape, R. Camp, J. Cao, D. Chen, A. Ducler, P. Gaule, R. Gupta, Y. Jin, S. Lang, Z. Levine, X. Li, Z. Liu, R. Means, A. Nagarajan, A. Pal, V. Pelekanou, P.M. Rabinovich, M.C. Stankewich, E. Theodorou, F. Villarroel, J. Wang, M. Yin, H. Zhang, H. Zhou

Associate Clinical Professor I. Nash (Laboratory Medicine)

Clinical Instructor N. Rodic

PATH 600, Pathological Basis of Human Disease Fundamental principles underlying the pathological alterations in function and structure that constitute the reaction of the organism to injury. Pathology of diseases involving neoplasia and special organs and systems. Correlation of the clinical and anatomical manifestations is emphasized. R.J. Homer and staff

PATH 616, Autopsy Pathology This course provides participation in the autopsy service with house staff in pathology. It covers proper performance of the autopsy including dissection, documentation and reporting, presentation of autopsy findings, and communication of medical opinions formed from the autopsy. The work includes involvement in dissection of cases, review of gross pathology, submission of sections for histology, review of microscopic slides, preparation of reports of findings, and involvement in investigative procedures related to necropsy material. Opportunities exist for correlation studies with previous biopsies and for clinical investigative and cell biologic techniques in relation to necropsy material and attendance. Six weeks minimum, enrollment limited to two students.

PATH 617, Anatomic Pathology The department offers an elective to medical students in the third or fourth year that provides a broad experience in general diagnostic techniques. Students have opportunities to participate in autopsy pathology, cytopathology, and surgical pathology. A daily diagnostic conference is scheduled for both residents and students. In addition to direct responsibilities in autopsy and surgical pathology areas, the student has opportunities to participate in electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics, and flow cytometry techniques. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: A. Adeniran

PATH 619/LMED 619, Anatomic Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Combined Elective The goals for anatomic pathology are to understand the basic principles of diagnostic anatomic pathology and its role in clinical medicine. The goals for laboratory medicine are to learn appropriate usage and interpretation of laboratory tests and to gain a better understanding of the theoretical, technological, and clinical underpinnings of laboratory medicine. This elective is appropriate for students considering a career in laboratory medicine and/or pathology, and for all students who will use laboratory and pathology tests in their careers. One or two students every four weeks. Director: A. Adeniran

PATH 620a, 621b, 622b, Laboratory Rotations in Experimental Pathology Laboratory rotations for first-year graduate students.

[PATH 630b/ENAS 535b, Biomaterial-Tissue Interactions The course addresses the interactions between tissues and biomaterials, with an emphasis on the importance of molecular- and cellular-level events in dictating the performance and longevity of clinically relevant devices. In addition, specific areas such as biomaterials for tissue engineering and the importance of stem/progenitor cells, and biomaterial-mediated gene and drug delivery are addressed.]

PATH 640a/B&BS 640a, Developing and Writing a Scientific Research Proposal The course covers the intricacies of scientific writing and guides students in the development of a scientific research proposal on the topic of their research. All elements of an NIH fellowship application are covered, and eligible students submit their applications for funding. Enrollment limited to twelve. K. Politi

[PATH 650b, Cellular and Molecular Biology of Cancer A comprehensive survey of cancer research from the cellular to the clinical level. The relation of cancer to intracellular and intercellular regulation of cell proliferation is emphasized, as are animal models for cancer research. Background in molecular genetics and cell biology is assumed. Open to advanced undergraduates with permission of the instructor.]

PATH 660b/C&MP 650b/PHAR 580b, The Responsible Conduct of Research Organized to foster discussion, the course is taught by faculty in the Pharmacology, Pathology, and Physiology departments and two or three senior graduate students. Each session is based on case studies from primary literature, reviews, and two texts: Francis Macrina’s Scientific Integrity and Kathy Barker’s At the Bench. Each week, students are required to submit a reaction paper discussing the reading assignment. Students take turns leading the class discussion; a final short paper on a hot topic in bioethics is required. B.E. Ehrlich

[PATH 670b, Biological Mechanisms of Reaction to Injury An introduction to human biology and disease as a manifestation of reaction to injury. Topics include organ structure and function, cell injury, circulatory and inflammatory responses, disordered physiology, and neoplasia.]

PATH 680a/C&MP 630a/PHAR 502a, Seminar in Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology Readings and discussion on a diverse range of current topics in molecular medicine, pharmacology, and physiology. The class emphasizes analysis of primary research literature and development of presentation and writing skills. Contemporary articles are assigned on a related topic every week, and a student leads discussions with input from faculty who are experts in the topic area. The overall goal is to cover a specific topic of medical relevance (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration) from the perspective of three primary disciplines (i.e., physiology: normal function; pathology: abnormal function; and pharmacology: intervention). D. Nguyen

PATH 681a/B&BS 681a, Advanced Topics in Cancer Biology This advanced course focuses on readings and discussion on three or four major topics in cancer biology, such as targeted therapy, tumor immunology, tumor metabolism, and genomic evolution of cancer. For each topic, the class starts with an interactive lecture, followed by critical analysis of primary research literature. Recent research articles are assigned, and a student leads discussions with input from faculty who are experts in the topic area. Prerequisite: PATH 650b or permission of the instructor. Open to all Ph.D., M.D./Ph.D., and M.P.H. students and to advanced undergraduates at the discretion of the instructor. R. Jensen

PATH 690b, Molecular Mechanisms of Disease The course links the experimental and basic molecular mechanisms of cellular and organ functions to the pathogenesis of the most common human diseases. It addresses the molecular basis of viral infections and AIDS, inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases, and several hematologic disorders. The course is coordinated with the Department of Genetics to provide students with a comprehensive, in-depth perspective on the significance and impact of genetic mechanisms in human diseases. In addition to formal lectures, the course offers monthly journal clubs and a special seminar given by a prominent guest speaker.

Pediatrics

LMP 4085, 203.785.4638

http://medicine.yale.edu/pediatrics

Professors N. Ameen, W.A. Andiman (Emeritus), R.J. Antaya (Dermatology), R.S. Baltimore, C.R. Baum, M.J. Bizzarro, C.W. Bogue (Chair), M. Brueckner, L.M. Buckley (Medicine), M. Cappello, S. Caprio, T.O. Carpenter, M.G. Caty (Surgery), K. Chawarska (Child Study Center), E.R. Colson, J.A. Copel (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), C.C. Duncan (Neurosurgery), M.E. Egan, R.A. Ehrenkranz, S.H. Emre (Surgery), J.T. Fahey, R.L. Fisher (Medicine), B.W. Forsyth, A.H. Friedman, P.G. Gallagher, M. Genel (Emeritus), J.N. Grauer (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), I. Gross (Emeritus), J.R. Gruen, J.P. Hafler, W.E. Hellenbrand, A.L. Horwich (Genetics), D.M. Komp (Emeritus), G. Kupfer, J.F. Leckman (Child Study Center), J.M. Leventhal, J. Lichtor (Anesthesiology), G. Lister, L.C. Mayes (Child Study Center), P.L. McCarthy, L.R. Ment, M.R. Mercurio, G. Miller (Emeritus), I. Miller, P.K. Mistry (Medicine), S. Rooney (Emeritus), L. Rosenfeld (Medicine), K. Santucci, E.D. Shapiro, B.A. Shaywitz, S.E. Shaywitz, R.N. Shiffman, B.G. Smith (Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation), B.R. Smith (Laboratory Medicine), W.V. Tamborlane, A. Tufro, S. Vermund (Public Health), S. Weinzimer, C.C. Weitzman, J. Woolston (Child Study Center)

Associate Professors L.D. Arnold, A.G. Asnes, J. Asnes, M. Auerbach, N. Bamford, A. Bazzy-Asaad, K.A. Bechtel, E. Bruscia, E. Cengiz, L. Chen, M. Choma (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), M.X. Cicero, O. Couloures, B. Doolittle (Medicine), U.D. Ekong, A. El-Guindy, E. Faustino, A.M. Fenick, J.S. Giuliano Jr, J. Goodwin, J. Hendrickson (Laboratory Medicine), A.L. Hsiao, L.C. Johnston, N. Kadan-Lottick, M. Khokha, M. Langhan, R.A. Martinello (Medicine), J.M. McNamara, E. Michaelides (Surgery), R. Morotti (Pathology), E. Paintsil, J.M. Panisello, D.S. Pashankar, F.D. Pashankar, A. Porto, A. Riera, M. Rosenthal, J. Sherr, J. Talwalkar (Medicine), M. Vazquez, P.G. Weiss

Assistant Professors A. Alper, P.J. Ananth, P. Aronson, C.M. Beach, V. Benitez, A. Berkwitt, C. Bruno, D.R. Camenga (Emergency Medicine), C. Canapari, E. Christison-Lagay (Surgery), K. Corbin, K.G. Couloures, E. Deniz, J.M. Dodington, R.W. Elder, B. Emerson, I.D. Ferguson, M. Goldman, M. Grossman, A.R. Gupta, E. Hall, S. Hattangadi, D. Hersh, C. Ionita, A. Jastreboff (Medicine), S. Kandil, V. Knight, A. Koral, S. Kwon, S.A. Lakhani, O. Levit, K.F. Liem, J. Loyal, N. Makhani, A. Marks, K.A. McVicar, A. Montgomery, E.A. Nozetz, D. Ozgediz (Surgery), A.D. Patel, S.G. Pels, U. Phatak, D.J. Rosen, N. Santoro, V. Shabanova, N. Shah, M. Sharifi, M. Spencer-Manzon (Genetics), G.Y. Tiyyagura, P. Valentino, M. Van Name, H.Z. Zhang (Genetics)

Instructors S. Antala, J. Catanzaro, N. Choi, S. Eschbach, J.R. Gaither, J. Greenberg, M.C. Hooper, L. Jeffries, C. Mize, E. Myers, R. Pierce, C. Robinson, C.A. Rowan, T. Rubin, S. Smith, J.C. Vasquez, J.K. Warejko

Research Scientists E. Drye, W. Ji, J.M. McGrath (Genetics)

Associate Research Scientists M. Ahsan, L. Balsamo, X. Chen, M. DeMille, J. Griffin, C. Hansen, I. Kawikova, E. Legue, M. Li, Q. Li, J. Malins, E. Marsillio, S. Matos daSilva Fertuzinhos, C. Mehta, W. Ni, A. Robson, V. Schulz, K. Sheares, S. Siebel, S. Sudarsana Devi, T.M. Whitfill, J. Yao, K. Yu

Associate Clinical Professors A.J. Avni-Singer, M.F. Canarie, D.H. Dreyfus, M. Ellison, S.I. Escalera, M.B. Flaherty-Hewitt, A. Golioto, M.P. Hommel, S.M. Peterec, S.A. Walsh, R.S. Young

Assistant Clinical Professors O.O. Adekanye, S. Boulware, A. Cameron, S. Chokshi, H. Dahlquist, C.L. Dorfman, M. Drago, A.S. Gork, Y.F. Gozzo, L. Gray, E. Gritz, M.S. Hogan, K. Maksimowski, L.M. Marks, A. Rodriguez, L. Siew, L.E. Sude

Clinical Instructors C. Brown, E.M. Powers (Anesthesiology), J.C. Samuel, J. Sheehan

Lecturers L. Alonso, K.M. Baker, A. Beitel, N.B. Brown, A.J. Carlson, J. Chinchilla-Karolicki, A.V. Cohen, M. DeLucia, L. DiMauro, D. Flanagan, S. Frank, M.H. Gad, L. Glassman-Wisnewski, L.L. Gould, E. Herz, A. Hoefer, C. Keanna, C. Kennedy, K. Kinsella, S.E. Kuhn, S. Kurian, B. Liebler, S.P. Martinello, P. Murtagh, R. Nolfo, J. O’Connor, K. Pae, Z. Scates, R. Seligson, M. Sheehan, S. Slattery, C.M. Smillie, K. Vassell, K. Wallis

MD 2175 (PEDS)/MD 2150 (OBGY), Women and Children’s Health Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes clinical components in obstetrics and gynecology and pediatrics. Students participate in six weeks of OB/Gyn and six weeks of pediatrics, with a mix of inpatient and ambulatory clinical experiences in both specialties. Throughout the clerkship students participate in integrated experiences that cover themes such as health and development, preventive care, sexual health, families and communities, health promotion and disease prevention, and perinatal care. All students attend an evening session with the gynecologic teaching associates. Directors: D.C. Hersh, S.R. Pathy; Codirectors: V.B. Desai, C. Boeras

PEDS 128, Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Elective This elective provides broad experience in the diagnosis and management of pediatric malignancies and hematologic disorders of infancy and childhood. The student functions as part of the inpatient service team and participates in the outpatient clinic three to four mornings each week. Weekly conferences include the multidisciplinary pediatric tumor board, leukemia and lymphoma conference, section conference, and weekly pediatric hematology/oncology patient management rounds. One student every two or four weeks. Prerequisite: Pediatric clerkship. Director: S. Massaro

PEDS 143/SURG 176, Pediatric Surgery Subinternship This subinternship provides an in-depth exposure to the broad spectrum of pediatric surgical problems. Specific attention is given to identifying the pediatric patient in crisis, a relevant skill whether or not the student pursues a career in surgery. Objectives include understanding the correction of major congenital anomalies, management of trauma, care of the critically ill child, and management of solid tumors. Experience includes in-depth exposure to the pediatric operating room, training in neonatal and pediatric critical care, and experience in the pediatric surgical outpatient clinic. The student is an integral part of the pediatric surgical team. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: E.R. Christison-Lagay

PEDS 144, Pediatric Cardiology Elective Students are exposed to a broad array of congenital and acquired heart disease in pediatrics, ranging from fetal to adult congenital heart patients. Over the course of the elective, students develop a basic understanding of the physiology of normal circulation, as well as the pathophysiology, diagnostic tests, and management of common forms of congenital and acquired heart disease. Students are exposed to patients over a broad range of settings, from daily inpatient rounds to outpatient continuity clinics. Additionally, there may be opportunities to observe complex diagnostic and therapeutic management options, including advanced cardiac imaging, cardiac catheterization, and surgical repair of pediatric heart defects. One student every four weeks. Director: R.W. Elder

PEDS 146, Pediatric Infectious Disease Elective Students participate in pediatric infectious disease rounds by presenting the case study of an inpatient whom they have examined to a group of faculty and fellows. Emphasis is placed on the correlation of the clinical problem and its practical management with principles of infectious epidemiology and clinical microbiology (bacteriology and virology). Consulting rounds are held daily. Teaching rounds in diagnostic microbiology are held four times a week. Weekly divisional rounds last approximately two hours. Students also attend the pediatric AIDS clinic. Prerequisite: Pediatric clerkship or permission of the instructor. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: C. Hansen

PEDS 148, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Elective This four-week elective provides extensive exposure to various aspects of pediatric endocrinology, with an emphasis on disorders of growth and sexual development, thyroid function, diabetes (type 1 and type 2), obesity, and bone and mineral metabolism. The student participates primarily in the outpatient pediatric endocrinology and diabetes clinics, as well as the inpatient service. The rotation includes participation in weekly pediatric endocrinology conferences as well as conferences held jointly with the adult endocrinology service. One or two students every four weeks. Director: A.D. Patel; S.A. Weinzimer

PEDS 152, Pediatrics Subinternship A four-week inpatient rotation during which senior medical students are considered the equivalent of interns and are directly responsible for the care of assigned patients under the supervision of resident and attending physicians. Students are assigned to one of the three patient-care units at Yale New Haven Children’s Hospital. The rotation offers an opportunity to develop organizational skills and experience the pace of internship in a supportive environment. Emphasis is placed on being a good team member, taking ownership of one’s patients, and demonstrating improvement in intern skills (clinical reasoning, communication with patients/families, organization, prioritization, presentation, and efficiency) through incorporation of constructive feedback. Prerequisite: satisfactory completion of third-year Pediatric and Internal Medicine clerkships. Maximum of three students every four weeks. Directors: D.C. Hersh

PEDS 154, Pediatric Respiratory Pulmonary Elective Students are exposed to a wide variety of activities in the Section of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine. These include evaluation and treatment of infants and children with acute and chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, aspiration syndromes, and obstructive sleep disorders. The emphasis is on learning how to assess respiratory dysfunction by physical exam and laboratory testing. The basics of mechanical ventilation are reviewed. Students rotate through inpatient and various outpatient services and specialty clinics, Pulmonary Function Laboratory, Exercise Stress Testing Lab, and Pediatric Sleep Center. Students are expected to participate in seminars, journal club, and patient rounds and clinics. In addition, students have the opportunity to experience one of only two CF Centers in the state of Connecticut offering a multidisciplinary team approach that provides state-of-the-art care of CF patients. One student every two or four weeks. Director: A. Bazzy-Asaad

PEDS 155/EMER 155, Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective Fourth-year students have the opportunity to evaluate and manage a broad range of acute medical and surgical complaints while honing their clinical skills under direct attending supervision, including thirty-six clinical hours per week in the pediatric emergency department. Education during clinical shifts is augmented by pediatric emergency medicine fellow education conferences and one-on-one teaching sessions with the elective director. Participation in teaching conferences and mock codes is required. One student every four weeks; two- and three-week rotations considered upon request. Prerequisites: pediatric rotation, EPIC inpatient training, and EPIC ED e-learning. Director: P.L. Aronson

PEDS 307, Pediatric Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Elective (NNICU) Students spend two weeks on the step-down service, followed by two weeks on the intensive care service. On each service students attend medical rounds and follow neonatal patients and write progress notes under close supervision. Students attend delivery room resuscitations and stabilizations, and prenatal consultations. On both services, students attend general and student-oriented educational conferences as well as radiology rounds. Students also pursue independent study on topics in neonatology and make brief presentations to the clinical team. Additional opportunities, such as attendance at outpatient developmental follow-up exams, are available to students based on interest. One student every four weeks. Directors: C. Bruno, S.M. Peterec

PEDS 314, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine Elective Senior medical students participate as members of the pediatric intensive care unit team. Students are directly responsible for the care of assigned patients under the supervision of pediatric residents, critical care fellows, and attending intensivists. A core curriculum composed of interactive talks on the major pediatric critical care topics is presented two to three times a week, as well as daily radiology rounds and a monthly morbidity and mortality conference. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: K.G. Couloures

PEDS 3181, Pediatric Neurology Elective This elective provides hands-on experience in pediatric neurology in both inpatient and outpatient clinical settings. Students attend rounds with supervising attending physicians as well as adult and pediatric neurology residents. Students are exposed to acute common as well as rare pediatric neurology disorders such as epilepsy, headaches, mental status changes, and weakness. The students obtain histories and perform neurological examinations on newly admitted patients or consult patients. Bedside discussions regarding diagnosis, work-up, and treatment are encouraged. Students have the opportunity to participate in the pediatric neurology consultation service or outpatient clinics. The consultation service exposes students to various emergencies in pediatric neurology such as seizures, status epilepticus, stroke, and other acute neurological issues. Both general pediatric neurology as well as subspecialty clinics (such as epilepsy, headache, movement disorders, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular, EMG) are available. In addition, students are introduced to different procedures, including spinal tap, electroencephalogram, brain and spine imaging techniques, and electromyogram. One student every two or four weeks. C. Ionita

PEDS 3182, Pediatric Nephrology Elective Students participate in the evaluation and management of patients on the pediatric inpatient service, pediatric ICU, neonatal ICU, and pediatric specialty center. Patient problems encompass the full range of clinical renal disorders, including fluid and electrolyte disturbances, acute and chronic renal failure, various forms of glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis, nephrolithiasis, hypertension, intoxications, inherited renal diseases, and urinary tract abnormalities. A pediatric nephrology faculty member serves as attending physician at all times and conducts teaching rounds daily. These teaching sessions provide supervision and training in the practical aspects of patient management, as well as instruction in the basic scientific disciplines that underlie the clinical practice of nephrology. Students also participate in outpatient renal clinics under the supervision of the faculty, gaining experience in the work-up of common renal disorders not initially requiring hospitalization (e.g., proteinuria, hematuria, mild azotemia), the assessment and treatment of childhood hypertension, and the long-term follow-up of patients after discharge from the inpatient and transplant services. Students are expected to attend weekly teaching conferences, formal pediatric renal core curriculum, and pediatric renal rounds. Open to fourth-and fifth-year students only. One student every two or four weeks. O. Couloures

Pharmacology

SHM B204, 203.785.4393

http://medicine.yale.edu/pharm

Professors K.S. Anderson, A.M. Bennett, Y. Cheng, J.R. Cooper (Emeritus), P.S. Dannies (Emeritus), B.E. Ehrlich, R.E. Handschumacher (Emeritus), R. Herbst (Medicine), J.R. Howe (Emeritus), L.K. Kaczmarek, N. Kaminski (Medicine), I. Lax, M.A. Lemmon, E. Lolis, A.C. Nairn (Psychiatry), M. Picciotto (Psychiatry), G. Rudnick, J. Schlessinger (Chair), W.C. Sessa, D. Wu

Associate Professors S. Akhtar (Anesthesiology), T.J. Boggon, D.A. Calderwood, J.N. Contessa (Therapeutic Radiology), M.P. DiGiovanna (Medicine), K.M. Ferguson, S. Ghosh (Neurology), Y. Ha, K.A. Martin (Medicine), E. Paintsil (Pediatrics), C.V. Rothlin (Immunobiology), B.E. Turk

Assistant Professors C. Alarcon, D. Klein, Y. Liu, B.P. Nelson, S. Nicoli (Genetics)

Senior Research Scientist S. Stayrook

Research Scientists A.B. Kiyatkin, S. Wu

Associate Research Scientists M. Ahmed, C. Calderwood, Q. Cheng, L. El-Hassar, K. Grabinska, F. Guan, B. Ha, Z. He, R. Hu, Z. Jiang, S.N. Kudalkar, L. Kuruvilla, W. Lam, A. Lawan, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Min, J.W. Murphy, G. Pantouris, E. Park, A.V. Reshetnyak, Y. Suzuki, W. Tang, Y. Tsutsui, A. Wyler, Q. Xiao, J. Yi, Q. Yuan, Y. Zhang

PHAR 502a/C&MP 630a/PATH 680a, Seminar in Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, and Physiology Readings and discussion on a diverse range of current topics in molecular medicine, pharmacology, and physiology. The class emphasizes analysis of primary research literature and development of presentation and writing skills. Contemporary articles are assigned on a related topic every week, and a student leads discussions with input from faculty who are experts in the topic area. The overall goal is to cover a specific topic of medical relevance (e.g., cancer, neurodegeneration) from the perspective of three primary disciplines (i.e., physiology: normal function; pathology: abnormal function; and pharmacology: intervention). D. Nguyen

PHAR 504a, Principles of Pharmacology This course covers the molecular mechanisms of therapeutics, which are presented in a conceptual framework to increase understanding but decrease memorization. Topics include (but are not limited to) receptor affinity, efficacy, multiple equilibria, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity; enzyme kinetics and inhibition, drug discovery and design; molecular basis of antimicrobial therapy, cardiology drugs, anticancer and antiviral therapies; and therapeutics for inflammatory disorders, asthma, and allergy. E. Lolis

PHAR 506a and b, Methods in Pharmacological Research (Rotations) Students work in laboratories of faculty of their choice. The schedule for each rotation is announced at the beginning of the fall term. E. Lolis

PHAR 521b/INP 521b, Neuroimaging in Neuropsychiatry II: Clinical Applications Neuroimaging methodologies including Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) are rapidly evolving tools used to study the living human brain. Neuroimaging has unprecedented implications for routine clinical diagnosis, for assessment of drug efficacy, for determination of psychotropic drug occupancy, and for the study of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The course is designed to provide an overview of the application of state-of-the-art neuroimaging methods to research in neurologic and psychiatric disorders. I. Esterlis

PHAR 528a, Principles of Signal Transduction The regulation of intracellular signaling is of fundamental importance to the understanding of cell function and regulation. This course introduces the broad principles of intracellular signal transduction. More detailed lectures on specific intracellular signaling pathways are given in which students learn both the basic and most recent and cutting-edge concepts of intracellular signaling. Topics include regulation of signaling by protein phosphorylation, small G proteins, G-protein-coupled receptors, hormones, phospholipids, adhesion, and gasses. A.M. Bennett

PHAR 529b, Structural Biology and Drug Discovery A comprehensive introduction to the concepts and practical uses of structural biology and structural biology-related techniques in drug discovery. The first half of the course focuses on techniques used to discover and optimize small and macromolecule drugs. Students are introduced to topics such as small molecule lead discovery, X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, and biophysical techniques. The first half of the course also includes a practical component where students conduct hands-on structural biology experiments and learn about biophysical techniques in a laboratory setting. The second half of the course focuses on drug discovery, particularly for protein kinases. It includes a field trip to the Yale Center for Drug Discovery, where the students are introduced to the in-house Yale screening facilities for small molecule drug discovery. Two half-credit courses—PHAR 530 and PHAR 531—are also offered for the two halves of PHAR 529. Y. Ha, T. Boggon

PHAR 530b, Targeted Use of Structural Biology in Drug Discovery This 0.5-credit course, the second half of PHAR 529b, begins in February. The goal of the course is to show students how concepts of structural biology are applied to areas of great importance in pharmacology such as protein kinases, proteases, cell surface receptors, integrins and other membrane-bound enzymes, and transporters and channels, and how these concepts facilitate drug development. T. Boggon, Y. Ha

PHAR 531b, Concepts of Structural Pharmacology This 0.5-credit course, the first half of PHAR 529b, introduces students to the concepts of structural biology and provides the background for how these concepts are applied to areas of great importance in pharmacology and how they facilitate drug development. T. Boggon, Y. Ha

PHAR 550a/C&MP 550a/ENAS 550a/MCDB 550a, Physiological Systems The course develops a foundation in human physiology by examining the homeostasis of vital parameters within the body, and the biophysical properties of cells, tissues, and organs. Basic concepts in cell and membrane physiology are synthesized through exploring the function of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. The physical basis of blood flow, mechanisms of vascular exchange, cardiac performance, and regulation of overall circulatory function are discussed. Respiratory physiology explores the mechanics of ventilation, gas diffusion, and acid-base balance. Renal physiology examines the formation and composition of urine and the regulation of electrolyte, fluid, and acid-base balance. Organs of the digestive system are discussed from the perspective of substrate metabolism and energy balance. Hormonal regulation is applied to metabolic control and to calcium, water, and electrolyte balance. The biology of nerve cells is addressed with emphasis on synaptic transmission and simple neuronal circuits within the central nervous system. The special senses are considered in the framework of sensory transduction. Weekly discussion sections provide a forum for in-depth exploration of topics. Graduate students evaluate research findings through literature review and weekly meetings with the instructor. W.M. Saltzman, S. Campbell

PHAR 560b/C&MP 560b/ENAS 570b/MCDB 560b, Cellular and Molecular Physiology: Molecular Machines in Human Disease The course focuses on understanding the processes that transfer molecules across membranes at the cellular, molecular, biophysical, and physiological levels. Students learn about the different classes of molecular machines that mediate membrane transport, generate electrical currents, or perform mechanical displacement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the molecular structures of membrane proteins and their individual functions. The interactions among transport proteins in determining the physiological behaviors of cells and tissues are also stressed. Molecular motors are introduced and their mechanical relationship to cell function is explored. Students read papers from the scientific literature that establish the connections between mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins and a wide variety of human genetic diseases. F.J. Sigworth

PHAR 580b/C&MP 650b/PATH 660b, The Responsible Conduct of Research Organized to foster discussion, the course is taught by faculty in the Pharmacology, Pathology, and Physiology departments and two or three senior graduate students. Each session is based on case studies from primary literature, reviews, and two texts: Francis Macrina’s Scientific Integrity and Kathy Barker’s At the Bench. Each week, students are required to submit a reaction paper discussing the reading assignment. Students take turns leading the class discussion; a final short paper on a hot topic in bioethics is required. B.E. Ehrlich

Psychiatry

300 George Street, Suite 901, 203.785.2117

http://medicine.yale.edu/psychiatry

Professors G.K. Aghajanian (Emeritus), A.T. Arnsten (Neuroscience), S.A. Ball, M. Baranoski, M.D. Bell (Emeritus), H. Blumberg, B.S. Bunney (Emeritus), K.M. Carroll, J.M. Cedarbaum (Adjunct), Z. Cooper (Adjunct), D.C. D’Souza, L. Davidson, R.J. DiLeone, R.S. Duman, M.H. Ebert, J.E. Gelernter, D.C. Glahn, L.S. Godleski, E.H. Griffith (Emeritus), C.M. Grilo, K.A. Hawkins, G. Heninger (Emeritus), J. Hirsch, R.A. Hoff, M.A. Hoge, S.C. Jacobs (Emeritus), R.D. Kerns, K.K. Kidd (Genetics), S. Krishnan-Sarin, J.H. Krystal (Chair), D. Lee (Neuroscience), P.J. Lombroso (Child Study Center), R.T. Malison, A.S. Martin (Child Study Center), S. Martino, G.F. Mason (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), C. Mazure, T.H. McGlashan (Emeritus), S. McKee, T.J. McMahon, A.C. Nairn, M.A. Norko, S.S. O’Malley, G.D. Pearlson, I.L. Petrakis, M. Picciotto, M.N. Potenza, S.M. Powsner, D.M. Quinlan, D.E. Redmond, Jr., R.M. Rohrbaugh, M.I. Rosen, R. Rosenheck, R.H. Roth, M. Rowe, G. Sanacora, M.J. Sernyak, N. Sestan (Neuroscience), R. Sinha, W.H. Sledge, D. Small, D.L. Snow (Emeritus), M. Sofuoglu, S.M. Southwick, J.S. Strauss (Emeritus), J.R. Taylor, J.K. Tebes, A.N. Van den Pol (Neurosurgery), C.H. Van Dyck, B.E. Wexler (Emeritus), S.W. Woods, K.A. Yonkers, H.V. Zonana

Associate Professors N.A. Addy, M. Alreja, L.M. Anez, A. Annamalai, A. Arias, S.R. Axelrod, D. Barry, R. Belitsky, C.D. Bellamy, M.O. Bonarrigo, A. Buchanan, M.C. Chawarski, C. Connell, J.M. Cook, N.L. Cooney, K.P. Cosgrove, C.A. Crusto, I.E. De Araujo, M.E. Delphin (Adjunct), E. Diaz, C.C. Dike, J.A. Encandela, I. Esterlis, J.M. Fiszdon, L. Fucito, M.N. Goldenberg, D.M. Gordon, I. Harpaz-Rotem, A.A. Heapy, R. Kapoor, J.S. Kaufman, P.D. Kirwin, H. Kober, D.M. LaPaglia, C. Li, P.T. Morgan, M. Paris, R.H. Pietrzak, C. Pittenger, A.N. Ponce, M. Ranganathan, S.G. Resnick, D.A. Ross, C.E. Sartor, M.V. Smith, V.H. Srihari, J.L. Steiner, T.H. Styron, N.E. Suchman, T.P. Sullivan, C. Tek, J. Tondora, L.A. Trevisan, J. Tsai, F. Wang (Adjunct), N. Ward, K.M. Wilkins, P. Zimbrean

Assistant Professors C. Abdallah, K. Ahn, H. Altalib (Neurology), A. Anticevic, B. Arnaout, J.E. Beauvais, R.D. Beech, J. Cahill, N. Capurso, E.R. Carr, D.A. Cavallo, L.G. Chepenik, Y. Chung (Adjunct), E.B. Cooney, G. Coppola (Child Study Center), P.R. Corlett, A.D. Dager, S. Decker, P.H. Desan, J.C. Deviva, G. Dragoi, E.L. Edens, D.C. Fehon, T.V. Fernandez, A. Forray, F. Fortunati, D. Foster, B. Fuehrlein, M. Garcia Vassallo, K.A. Garrison, P.Y. Geha, S. Gupta, M. Hampson (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), E.D. Hermes, G. Hermes, A. Hillmer, P. Ho, M.G. Hunt, T. Iheanacho, M. Jadi, A. Jordan, B. Kiluk, A.S. Klee, K. Klingensmith, G. Kong, S.D. Kruger, J.F. Kulas, C.A. Kwan, R. MacLean, W. Mathis, D. Matuskey (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), S. Meshberg-Cohen, R.A. Miller, D. Moore, J. Murray, S. Muvvala, M. Nakic, L. Oberleitner, C.L. Olezeski, S. Parke, D. Pilkey, R. Polimanti, J.M. Pollard, M. Prabhu, K. Preller (Adjunct), K.A. Sabet (Adjunct), J.J. Sellinger, D. Seo, H. Seo, M.A. Silva, L. Sippel (Adjunct), P.D. Skosnik, M.A. Stacy, H.R. Steinberg, M. Steinfeld, M.J. Strambler, T.S. Surti, T.C. VanDeusen, D. Vojvoda, T.D. Wasser, A. Westphal, I. Wiechers, P.D. Worhunsky, K. Xu, S. Yip, G. Yoon, S. Zhang, Z. Zimolo

Instructors M.D. Al-Jammaly, R.H. de Similien, E. Dooley, A. Fesharaki-Zadeh, S.K. Fineberg, A. Mecca, T. Schmutte, M. Sherif

Senior Research Scientists K.L. Behar, M. Bell, J.D. Elsworth, P.I. Jatlow (Laboratory Medicine), R. Masheb, R.S. Schottenfeld, B.E. Wexler

Research Scientists A.C. Black, N.R. Driesen, E. Flanagan, J.K. Johannesen, A. Kaffman, Y.S. Mineur, B.A. Moore, E. Ralevski, B. Yang

Associate Research Scientists T. Adams, G. Angarita-Africano, L. Averill, R.D. Barnes, D.L. Boggs, K. Bold, F.D. Buono, G.M. Chowdhury, J. Cortes-Briones, M. Costa, K.S. DeMartini, M. Desai, E.E. DeVito, M. Driscoll, C.H. Duman, S.N. Edmond, S. Groman, P. Gruner, W. Han, A. Harper, S.E. Holmes, J.S. Ide, A. Imal, V. Ivezaj, J.S. Jane, K.P. Jensen, L.K. Kachadourian, W.J. Kasprow, B. Kelmendi, E. Knowles, H. Laws, R. Liu, X. Luo, J. Lydecker, S. Mathias, V. Milivojevic, K. Morie, B. Muppala, V. Musante, J. Noah, E.E. O’Brien, A. Pavlo, G. Portnoy, M. Seay, D. Sells, P. Simon, M. Staeheli, E. Stefanovics, L.A. Tellez Lima, J. Trinko, M.G. Veldhuizen, T. Verplaetse, W. Wang, L. Wei, M. Wu, J. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Zuo

Clinical Professors D.N. Berg, J. Phillips, L.W. Reiser

Associate Clinical Professors D. Fried, M. Mandelkern

Assistant Clinical Professors E. Abel, E. Becker-Dunn, S.E. Bender, E.H. Berger, D. Bond, I. Burgos-Chapman, J.R. Check, A. Childs, K. Croce, D. David, C. DeMaio, J.M. Doran, D. Epelbaum, L. Fenton, S. Finkelstein, D.A. Fisk, T. Glinberg, A. Gonzales-Harsha, H. Gouta, N. Hamlett, J. Hegarty, A. Kaffman, S. Khan, B. Klink, J. Kremer, B. Lee, R.A. Litwin, H. Lizcano, G. Maloney, C.A. Markle, S.J. Migdole, P.V. Mulinski, M. Niculete, C. Oleskey, Z. Qayyum, S. Ravven, A. Resnick, M. Rodriguez, J. Scott, R. Sidaros, S. Silverstein, D.C. Tate, K. Trueblood, M. Whitson, I. Wiechers, K.M. Wrocklage

Clinical Instructors M. Bailey, V. Dubose, M. Ervin, D.J. Flanigan, C. Grazia, M.C. Grenough, C.M. Hunnicutt, R.L. Kieran, H. Kim, J.N. Rascati, J. Serra

Lecturers C. Atkins, J. Ballestas, C.M. Barber, J.L. Barron, N. Beesley, R.H. Berger, D. Berv, M. Campbell, C. Conrad, H.F. Crabbe, M. Cruza-Guet, G.H. Davis, A.R. Demac, C.E. Desmond, P.J. Dileo, P. Dillon, M. Emmanuel, S. Feuerstein, K.E. Gersick, J. Giard, V.C. Girard, S. Goodson, J.B. Gordon, G. Greenberg, C. Gulrajani, J. Hannan, K. Hathaway, K. Hefner, B. Hopkins, S.J. Houlding, D. Howe, R. Juaneza, M.A. Kalacznik, A. Kalafa, J.P. Kimmel, B.C. Klein, J. Klugman, A. Koleszar, K.K. Krusong, A.L. Labruzza, L. Lager, L.M. Lothstein, J.J. Magnavita, R.B. Makover, A. Manhapra, K. Marcus, A. Massa, A.W. Meisler, D. Mender, J. Meyer, J. Meyers, M. Mitchell, N.V. Mohatt, D.C. Moore, M. Moscarelli, L. Nathan, E. Neeley, K.F. Nuro, M. Oliva, M.J. Orlosky, A. Otzel, J.M. Palumbo, E. Peters, J.M. Pisciotta, P. Rehmer, W. Reich, E. Renaud, J. Richman, E.B. Rubin, D. Sakheim, S.L. Satel, R. Scherman, A.J. Sholomskas, R. Sirken, S.I. Tarbox-Berry, P.F. Thomas, P.J. Whang, C. Yang, H. Yarosh, A. Yusim, J.R. Zigun

MD 2075 (Psych)/MD 2050 (IM), Biopsychosocial Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship comprises a six-week rotation in primary care and a six-week rotation in psychiatry. During the six-week primary care component, students spend 5–6 half-days each week working in a practice for adult primary care (i.e., general internal medicine, family medicine, or combined medicine/pediatrics) and 2–3 half-days each week working in a practice for general pediatrics. The psychiatry component of the clerkship includes three weeks of inpatient psychiatry, three weeks of consultation-liaison or emergency psychiatry, and six half-day sessions in a longitudinal outpatient psychiatry or integrated primary care–psychiatry clinic. Primary care and psychiatry each have distinct classroom exercises. However, an integrated classroom curriculum brings students together each Thursday afternoon to explore the many topics that overlap primary care and psychiatry, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, somatic symptom disorder, and pain. Directors: P. Ellis, K.M. Wilkins; Codirectors: A.M. Fenick, M. Goldenberg

Psych 203, Psychiatry Inpatient Elective (CMHC) This elective includes intensive work with inpatients who suffer from major psychiatric disorders with or without substance abuse. Emphasis is on assessment, acute treatment, and arrangement of continuing care in the community. The subintern functions as an integral member of a multidisciplinary treatment team. Clinical research participation is encouraged. Opportunities are available to explore special areas of interest (e.g., forensics, psychopharmacology, administration) with CMHC faculty. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. Open to fourth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 206, Law and Psychiatry Elective This elective affords opportunities for third- and fourth-year students to observe and participate in “competency to stand trial” evaluations with a clinical team that makes these assessments at the New Haven Correctional Center. In addition, they may attend Law School classes with students who represent psychiatric patients, observe civil commitment procedures, and attend probate court hearings as well as the criminal proceedings in local New Haven Superior Courts. Students attend work seminars where case evaluations and write-ups are discussed and prepared, and read appropriate legal cases and psychiatric literature. Students may be able to participate in parts of evaluations of insanity defense, custody determination, and other forensic issues. They attend the Law and Psychiatry seminar during their rotation. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 209, Addiction Psychiatry Elective An elective clinical training experience in addiction psychiatry for third- and fourth-year students. The primary training site is the Detoxification and Addiction Stabilization Service at the VA Connecticut Healthcare System in West Haven. Students learn about performing detailed initial evaluations; treating alcohol, opioid, and benzodiazepine withdrawal; initiating medication-assisted treatment; providing opioid overdose education and naloxone distribution, providing smoking cessation treatment, utilizing psychosocial interventions and mutual help, as well as the principles of harm reduction; and addressing psychiatric and medical comorbidities. The rotation includes a discussion of relevant readings. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 210, Psychiatry Inpatient Elective (YNHH/YPH) This elective includes intensive work with patients who suffer from major psychiatric disorders and range in age from college students to middle age. Emphasis is on assessment, acute treatment, and arrangement of post-discharge follow-up care in the community. The student is an advanced clerk functioning as a member of the multidisciplinary treatment team, taking on primary clinician and psychiatric/medical responsibilities for patients under the supervision of senior clinicians. The elective is given on the inpatient service at the Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital; clinical research and outpatient involvement may be options. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. Open to fourth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 211, Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit Elective This elective offers senior medical students the opportunity to work closely with a variety of patients who are hospitalized during their participation and treatment in research protocols. The Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit (CNRU) is a thirteen-bed inpatient ward with associated outpatient clinics and basic science laboratories on the third floor of the Connecticut Mental Health Center (CMHC). Supervised implementation of novel psychopharmacology, exposure to multiple aspects of clinical and basic science research, and in-depth experience with individual and group psychotherapies are educational aspects of this elective. Patients’ diagnostic categories include depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, cocaine abuse, substance abuse, and psychiatric genetics. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. Open to fourth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 212, Mood Disorders and Neuromodulation Elective (ECT and TMS) This elective offers senior medical students the opportunity to learn about neuromodulation techniques in the treatment of mood disorders, more specifically, by using electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and repetitive transcranial stimulation (TMS). Students learn the theoretical basis for the use of ECT and TMS, among other neuromodulation techniques, in the treatment of mood disorders. They learn indications and contraindications to treatment, the process of evaluation of patients prior to and during treatment (including use of standardized depression rating scales), how to monitor for complications and side effects to treatment, and the latest research in the field. Students work closely with psychiatry attending physicians and residents at the VA in the evaluation of patients referred for ECT and TMS, and have the opportunity for supervised participation in the performance of these treatments. Patient population includes veterans of all ages with a variety of psychiatric conditions, including mood disorders with comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 234, Adolescent Psychiatry Elective The purpose of this elective is to provide fourth-year medical students interested in child and adolescent psychiatry and/or adolescent medicine an experience in working with adolescents presenting with acute psychiatric illness. The elective is based on the adolescent inpatient unit at Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital, a short-term fifteen-bed unit serving patients aged 12–18. Students gain exposure to a diverse patient population with severe mood, psychotic, behavioral, and/or substance use disorders, as well as begin to understand the intricacies of working with families and systems providing care for adolescents with significant emotional and/or behavioral disturbances. Teaching activities include daily rounds and weekly case conferences. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 238, Early Psychosis Elective (STEP Clinic) STEP (Specialized Treatment Early in Psychosis) is a multidisciplinary team-based treatment for individuals presenting early in the course of a psychotic illness. This clinic offers unique opportunities in the assessment and treatment of a population that is difficult to access in other clinical settings. Students have the opportunity to observe structured research assessments and interpretation of these scales in light of careful clinical follow-up. Given the diagnostic and prognostic heterogeneity of illnesses presenting with psychosis, this experience provides the opportunity to develop clinical expertise in diagnosis and management of a range of mental health issues. The enriched treatment includes cognitive-behavioral group therapy, family psycho-education groups, and cognitive remediation in addition to vocational support with a focus on rapidly reintegrating patients back to age-appropriate social, educational, and employment goals. Students have the opportunity to observe or participate in any of these treatments. The multidisciplinary and pluralistic nature of the intervention presents a rich opportunity to participate in collaborative care with other mental health disciplines. Students can also participate in regular seminars sponsored by the STEP and PRIME (Prevention through Risk Identification, Management, and Education) clinics. The latter is a research clinic focused on prodromal psychosis. STEP is designed as a service delivery model with a built-in observational cohort and experimental pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Students are invited to take an active role in the various domains of scholarship including community and clinician education efforts, publication, and learning about clinical research design. This experience must be paired with a main placement at one of the available elective inpatient services. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. Open to fourth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 301, Psychiatry Inpatient Subinternship (CMHC) Intensive work with inpatients who suffer from major psychiatric disorders with or without substance abuse and who have significant social challenges often including lack of access to stable housing, work, and health insurance. Emphasis is on assessment, acute treatment, and arrangement of continuing care in the community. The student functions as an integral member of a multidisciplinary treatment team and serves as the primary clinician for four to five patients. The subinternship occurs on the inpatient service (4th floor) of the Connecticut Mental Health Center (CMHC). Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks, May through October only. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 302, Psychiatry Inpatient Subinternship (YNHH, WS-2) Intensive work with patients who suffer from major psychiatric disorders and range in age from college students to middle age. Most patients have access to health insurance or have Medicare and/or Title XIX. Emphasis is on assessment, acute treatment, and arrangement of post-discharge follow-up care in the community. The student is an advanced clerk functioning as a member of the multidisciplinary treatment team, taking on primary clinician and psychiatric/medical responsibilities for patients under the supervision of senior clinicians. The subinternship occurs on the general adult inpatient service at the Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks, May through October only. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 303, Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit Subinternship (CNRU) The Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit (CNRU) is a specialized service dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and research of neuropsychiatric disorders. The unit consists of an inpatient service, as well as outpatient specialty clinics for addictive, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, psychotic, and women’s behavioral health disorders. Most patients voluntarily participate in clinical research studies designed to determine the neurobiological mechanism underlying these disorders. Pharmacotherapy, individual psychotherapy, group therapy, and behavior therapy are provided as clinically indicated and are free of charge to patients. Students function as high-level clinical care providers and are an integral part of the treatment team. The subinternship occurs on the CNRU of the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 320/CHLD 302, Child Study Center Clinical Research Elective This elective entails etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of adolescent psychopathology, including eating disorders, depression, suicide, psychosis, delinquency, and the impact of physical and mental disabilities on adolescent development. Reading is supplemented with live and taped clinical material. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 325/CHLD 325, Child Study Center Psychiatry Elective The aim of this elective is to provide the student with an intensive experience in infant, child, and adolescent psychiatry. The curriculum includes assessments of normal development and psychopathology in childhood, treatment methods, and research in major disorders of childhood. Students are active team members of the Children’s Psychiatric Inpatient Service (CPIS) and the consultation service to the pediatric wards of Yale New Haven Hospital and can take advantage of the wide range of ongoing seminars, conferences, and clinical services in place at the Child Study Center. Teaching methods include seminars, conferences, field observations, ward rounds, and practicals selected by the student following consultation with the director of medical studies and the Child Study Center. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 3192, Psychiatric Emergency Room Elective, VA Connecticut Healthcare System This two-week elective experience exposes students to the management of complex and high-risk veterans who present to the psychiatric emergency room (PER). Students learn basic skills in obtaining a thorough history, including the difficult topics of suicidality, homicidality, substance use, and homelessness. Students learn basic skills in crisis management, acute substance intoxication and withdrawal, and comprehensive risk assessments. Students function within the larger team of professionals and learn the importance of a team-based approach to patient care. Prerequisite: completion of the pre-clinical medical school curriculum and the core clinical clerkships. One student every two weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Psych 3194, Psychological Medicine Elective In this elective, post-clerkship students are exposed to a variety of patients with psychiatric symptoms who are hospitalized in the general hospital and/or present to outpatient medical clinics. The students are assigned to either the Behavioral Intervention Team (BIT), a multidisciplinary team that works proactively providing timely, appropriate, and effective patient care in the internal medicine floors, or the Psychiatric Consultation/Liaison Service, which provides psychiatric consultation in the different specialty sites including ICU, surgery, OBGYN, and neurology. Students also spend time in an outpatient experience in the Nathan Smith Clinic, where their clinical learning focuses on HIV psychiatry and addictive disorders. During this clinical elective, students enhance their interview skills, learn the process of consultation/liaison in the different treatment settings, and enhance their core psychiatric knowledge and skills with a focus on content at the interface of medicine and psychiatry. They participate in teaching sessions provided by the attendings and fellows and are expected to attend the service’s clinical conferences and to present cases in morning rounds. Prerequisite: required Psychiatry clerkship. One student every four weeks. Director: T. Matos Santana

Psych 7076, Psychiatric Emergency Room Subintership (VACHS) Students build skills and have an increasing level of responsibility for direct patient care. Students take a primary role in caring for patients, with direct supervision from chief residents and attending physicians; and they act as role models and mentors for MS3 students who will be rotating simultaneously. By the end of the rotation, students should be confident with supervised but independent management of complex psychiatric patients. Prerequisite: completion of the preclinical medical school curriculum and the core clinical clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: R.M. Rohrbaugh

Public Health

60 College Street, 203.785.2867

http://publichealth.yale.edu

Professors S. Aksoy, H.G. Allore (Medicine), F. Altice (Medicine), M. Armstrong (Emeritus), R.S. Baltimore (Pediatrics), S.L. Bernstein (Emergency Medicine), M.B. Bracken (Emeritus), C.A. Brandt (Emergency Medicine), R. Bucala (Medicine), S.H. Busch, M. Cappello (Pediatrics), E.B. Claus, P.D. Cleary, L. Dembry (Medicine), V.T. DeVita (Medicine), A.B. Du Bois (Emeritus), R.D. Dubrow, J. Dziura (Emergency Medicine), D.A. Fiellin (Medicine), E. Fikrig (Medicine), D. Fish (Emeritus), H.P. Forman (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), A.P. Galvani, T.M. Gill (Medicine), P. Glazer (Therapeutic Radiology), C.P. Gross (Medicine), R. Heimer, T.R. Holford, S.M. Horwitz (Emerita), J.R. Ickovics, M.L. Irwin, J.F. Jekel (Emeritus), A.C. Justice (Medicine), T. Kershaw, A.I. Ko, H.M. Krumholz (Medicine), B.P. Leaderer, L.S. Levin (Emeritus), B.R. Levy, E.D. Louis (Neurology), S.Ma, X. Ma, R.W. Makuch, L.E. Marks (Emeritus), D. McMahon-Pratt (Emeritus), I.G. Miller (Pediatrics), L.M. Niccolai, A.D. Paltiel, C.L. Patton (Emeritus), P.N. Peduzzi, R. Perez-Escamilla, M.M. Pettigrew, C. Redlich (Medicine), H.A. Risch, R. Rosenheck (Psychiatry), N.H. Ruddle (Emerita), M.B. Russi (Medicine), M.J. Schlesinger, E.D. Shapiro (Pediatrics), J.L. Sindelar, A.N. Sofair (Medicine), J. Stitt (Emeritus), J.A. Stolwijk (Emeritus), P. Sung (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), J. Sweasy (Therapeutic Radiology), J.K. Tebes (Psychiatry), G.H. Tignor (Emeritus), M.E. Tinetti (Medicine), C. Tschudi, V. Vasiliou, S.H. Vermund (Dean), K.A. Yonkers (Psychiatry), D. Zelterman, H. Zhang, H. Zhao

Associate Professors M.S. Bogucki (Emergency Medicine), T. Cohen, F.W. Crawford, J.L. Davis, M.M. Desai, A.T. Dewan, D.A. Esserman, J.J. Hoh, K. Khoshnood, J.H. Lichtman, H. Lin, J.E. Monin, R.R. Montgomery (Medicine), J.E. Pachankis, E. Paintsil (Pediatrics), S. Parikh, V. Pitzer, J.S. Ross (Medicine), J. Sherman (Anesthesiology), M. Smith (Medicine), J.P. Townsend, Z. Wang, M.A. White, Y. Zhang (Surgery), Y. Zhu

Assistant Professors X. Chen, J. Chu (Medicine), M.M. Ciarleglio, Z.N. Cooper, N.C. Deziel, E. Donroe (Medicine), J. Edelman (Medicine), D. Foster (Psychiatry), A.S. Friedman, G. Gonsalves, B. Gould-Rothberg (Medicine), N.L. Hawley, C. Johnson, A.M. Jukic, M. Kane, D.E. Keene, M. Levine (Pathology), C.D. Ndumele, Y. Ransome, J.L. Schwartz, V. Shabanova (Pediatrics), F.M. Shebl, M.V. Smith (Psychiatry), J. Wallace, P. Wang, S. Wang, J.L. Warren, D.M. Weinberger, S.D. Whirledge (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), R. Yaesoubi, X. Yan (Medicine)

Senior Research Scientists M. Bracken, B. Cartmel, J.E. Childs, L. Curry, A.J. Davidoff, G.H. Friedland (Medicine), J.F. Gent, R. Gueorguieva, P.J. Krause, L.E. Munstermann

Research Scientists L. Calvocoressi, Y. Chen, S. Cunningham, F. Dai, L. Ferrucci, L.E. Grau, H. Huang, B. Jones, N.G. Kolev, Y. Kong, L. Lu, M. Ndeffo Mbah, N. Sun, R. Wang, B.L. Weiss

Associate Research Scientists H. Adhikarla, J.A. Alfaro-Murillo, M. Armstrong-Hough, R.C. Barbour, A. Brewster, E. Buta, S.K. Calabrese, G. Charkoftaki, K.O. Duffany, S. Gaffney, J. Golla, E. Greene, K.L. Harding, A.J. Hromi-Fiedler, T.C. Kyriakides, E.C. Leifheit, A. Nkouawa, A. Pandey, A. Pomer, H. Qian, N. Rattray, S. Singh, M.J. Stolar, Z. Wang, W. Wei, E.A. Wunder, Y. Zhu

Clinical Professors J.F. Anderson, R. Hecht

Associate Clinical Professor D. Shenson

Assistant Clinical Professors S.D. Geballe, A.M. Miller, C. Yeckel

Clinical Instructor D.L. Humphries

Lecturers D.D. Aye, D. Banach, A. Boissevain, M.P. Borgstrom, M.M. Callaway, P.F. Canny, B. Cartmel, J. Childs, L. Curry, R. D’Aquila, M.G. Dale, A.S. Darefsky, H.G. Dove, K. Duffany, L. Ferrucci, G.L. Ginsberg, I. Herz Kaminski, B. Jones, P. Krause, S. Kumar, M. Lee, J. Mantopoulos, M.A. Pascucilla, C. Petit, J.C. Scheeren, M. Slade (Medicine), J.P. Smith, R.S. Stahl (Surgery), D.E. Stevens, J. Stolwijk, M.H. Stowe (Medicine), P.H. Van Ness, B.L. Weiss, E. Wunder

The nationally accredited Yale School of Public Health (YSPH) offers a wide variety of courses across several departments. Many of these are also available for medical student enrollment. For information on courses and registration procedures, contact the YSPH Registrar’s Office.

Radiology and Biomedical Imaging

TE-2, 203.785.6938

http://radiology.yale.edu

Professors J.J. Abrahams, H. Blumberg (Psychiatry), S. Bokhari, R.A. Bronen, M.I. Burrell, R.E. Carson, R.T. Constable, A.M. Curtis, R. de Graaf, J.S. Duncan, H.P. Forman, M.G. Glickman (Emeritus), T.R. Goodman (Chair), A.H. Haims, Y.H. Huang, D. Hyder, G.M. Israel, M.H. Johnson, L.D. Katz, E. Kier (Emeritus), H. Kim, J.P. Lawson (Emeritus), G.F. Mason, S.M. McCarthy (Emeritus), B.L. McClennan (Emeritus), E.D. Morris, X. Papademetris, L.E. Philpotts, J. Pollak, A.T. Rosenfield (Emeritus), D.L. Rothman, L.M. Scoutt, C. Shaw (Emeritus), L.H. Staib, G. Sze, H.D. Tagare, I. Tocino, F.J. Wackers (Emeritus), J.C. Weinreb, R.I. White (Emeritus)

Associate Professors M. Chen, M.A. Choma, K.P. Cosgrove (Psychiatry), R.K. Fulbright, G. Gunabushanam, M. Hampson, R.J. Hooley, K.M. Johnson, C. Liu, A. Malhotra, C.R. Miller, H.R. Mojibian, J.A. Obando, J.K. Pahade, D.C. Peters, A.N. Rubinowitz, C.J. Silva, C.R. Taylor

Assistant Professors L. Andrejeva, M.H. Arici, R.R. Ayyagari, A. Bader, L.A. Baldassarre (Medicine), B. Branson, J. Brown (Adjunct), R. Butler, Z. Cai, P.A. Cedeno, F. Czeyda-Pommersheim, M. Davis, H. De Feyter, B.J. Dillon, M.A. Durand, L. Ehrlich, M. Etesami, M. Ferrante, S. Finnema (Adjunct), G. Galiana, J. Geisel, A. Hillmer, L.J. Horvath, S. Huber, K. Kaliannan, R.H. Kent, J. Killam, J.D. Kirsch, I. Latich, J. Lee, P.H. Levesque, A.W. Lischuk, A. Mahajan, B. Marquez-Nostra, M. Mathur, C.C. Matouk (Neurosurgery), D. Matuskey, R.D. Messina, J. Mezrich, E.J. Miller (Medicine), F.J. Minja, J.L. Perez Lozada, N.H. Petersen (Neurology), M. Raghu, B. Rao, M.V. Revzin, E. Rowe, L.A. Saperstein, D. Scheinost, T. Schlachter, L.S. Sheiman, B.M. Shuch (Urology), D.D. Silin, M. Spektor, P. Varma, A. Wang, V.M. Zohrabian, W.B. Zucconi

Instructors A. Boustani, M. Conti, P. DiDomenico, I. Ikuta, S. Marlatt

Research Scientists F. D’Errico, N. Nabulsi

Associate Research Scientists D. Casetti, J. Chapiro, D. Coman, N. Dvornek, J. Gallezot, B.S. Ganganna, P. Herman, J. Hillion, L. Jiang, Y. Koush, D.C. Labaree, S. Li, K. Lim, Y. Lu, M. Naganawa, J. Onofrey, M. Qiu, J.R. Ropchan, X. Shen, B. Wu, Y. Ye

Clinical Professor M.S. Shin

Associate Clinical Professors T.R. McCauley, A. Mustafa

Assistant Clinical Professors G.J. Conlogue, J. Kim, M. Rolen

DIAG 121, Diagnostic Radiology Clinical Elective This elective introduces students to the basic principles of radiologic imaging and interpretation necessary for clinical management. Students rotate through one-week blocks on the Chest, Musculoskeletal (MSK), and GI/GU services as well as the radiology section of the Emergency Department (ED), with the goal of learning the fundamentals of interpreting plain films. The emphasis on the Chest service is the interpretation of plain films seen in the ICU and imaging related to acute and chronic chest pathology. On the MSK service, emphasis is on interpretation of fractures, plain film findings of bone disease, and postoperative imaging. On the GI/GU service, students observe and participate in fluoroscopic gastrointestinal studies and their interpretation. The ED rotation exposes students to the wide array of imaging performed through the ED including trauma. Students are also exposed to more advanced imaging modalities (CT, ultrasound, and MRI). Students are paired with a dedicated resident on their weekly rotations and also participate in readouts with attending radiologists. Students are taught relevant radiologic anatomy and the appropriateness of ordering various studies in the diagnosis of disease; they are also exposed to what the performance of various studies entails. Students may tailor the rotations to specific interests within radiology (e.g., ultrasound, mammography, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, nuclear medicine). Students attend the twice daily departmental resident lectures and weekly medical student radiologic lectures, as well as at least two core introductory lectures in each subspecialty. Self-teaching material is available online, and students are expected to review this during each of their weeks. There are no call responsibilities, although students have the option of participating in evening shifts in the ED to gain more experience and broader exposure to this busy service. At the conclusion of the elective, each student gives a short presentation of an interesting case with discussion of relevant imaging. Maximum of six students every four weeks. Director: J.D. Kirsch; Associate Director: J. Killam

DIAG 134, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Elective This two-week elective is an introduction to vascular and interventional radiology: the use of radiological imaging to guide procedures in various organ systems of the body and the evaluation and management of patients who are candidates for these. In the vascular system, this includes arterial and venous angiography, angioplasty, stenting, embolization for bleeding, tumors (such as uterine fibroids), vascular malformations, venous reflux management, inferior vena cava filter placement, hemodialysis access management, and placement of a variety of venous access devices. Nonvascular experience includes percutaneous approaches to biliary and urinary track pathology, drainage of abscesses and other fluid collections, and tumor ablation. Students participate in the interventional radiology clinic and admitting service. One student every two weeks. Director: I. Latich

DIAG 135, Pediatric Imaging Clinical Elective This elective serves as an introduction to the clinical management of infants, children, and adolescents through the use of integrated diagnostic imaging. Students participate through a review of imaging studies with residents and attending physicians; observation of fluoroscopic, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT) procedures; and attendance at daily clinical conferences. Students are encouraged to present interesting cases or to participate in research projects during the elective. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: L. Ehrlich

DIAG 137, Neuroradiology Elective This rotation is designed as an introduction to neuroradiology. The student becomes an integral part of the neuroradiology team, which consists of the resident, fellow, and attending physician. This elective is somewhat different from others in that there is less “hands-on” activity and more observation, and it tends to be more self-motivated and self-directed. Students are encouraged and expected to interact during readouts by asking questions and being involved. They are also encouraged to review cases on their own prior to readout. By the end of the elective, students should be familiar with the normal radiographic anatomy of the brain, spine, and head and neck, and they should have developed a systematic approach to interpreting CTs and MRIs of this region as well as recognizing basic pathology. Students are also exposed to the various subsections of neuroradiology including brain, spine, head and neck, pediatrics, etc. Upon request, those interested may also be exposed to special procedures including image-guided biopsies, myelography, angiography, and neurointerventional procedures. An interactive PowerPoint program covering neuroradiology is provided, and there are also teaching aids on the neuroradiology website. A number of teaching conferences are offered. One or two students every two or four weeks. Director: A. Mahajan

DIAG 138, Interventional Radiology Subinternship This subinternship is designed for students interested in pursuing a career in interventional radiology, but also for those interested in diagnostic radiology, surgical specialties, and other fields that interact intimately with interventional radiology such as urology, transplant surgery, oncology, and hepatology, among many others. Students participate in a wide spectrum of interventional procedures, which include body systems spanning human anatomy from head to toe. In the vascular system, these include arterial and venous angiography, angioplasty, thrombolysis, and stenting; embolization for bleeding; tumor treatments (chemoembolizations, radioembolizations); vascular malformation and venous reflux management; inferior vena cava filter placement and retrieval; management of portal hypertension (TIPS, BRTO); and hemodialysis access management and placement of a variety of venous access devices, such as ports, hemodialysis, and medication infusion catheters. Nonvascular procedures include image-guided biopsy and tumor ablation; percutaneous approaches to gastric, biliary, and urinary track pathology; and drainage of abscesses and other fluid collections. In addition to engaging actively in procedures, students participate in the pre- and postprocedural evaluation of patients in the clinic setting, engage in the postprocedural care of admitted patients, and rotate on the interventional radiology consult service, at times carrying the IR consult pager. Educational components include weekly IR lectures, weekly peripheral vascular multidisciplinary conferences, and weekly liver tumor board meetings. Students are expected to take approximately one weeknight call per week and one weekend call during the rotation. Prerequisite: completion of all required clerkships. One or two students every four weeks. Director: I. Latich

Surgery

FMB 102, 203.785.2697

http://surgery.yale.edu

Professors S. Ariyan (Emeritus), L.M. Bartoshuk (Emeritus), S. Bokhari (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), M.G. Caty, A. Dardik, K.A. Davis, F.C. Detterbeck, S.J. Dudrick (Emeritus), C.C. Duncan (Neurosurgery), J.A. Elefteriades, S.H. Emre, R.N. Formica (Medicine), J.P. Geibel, B.G. Green, R.J. Gusberg (Emeritus), G.L. Hammond (Emeritus), B. Kinder (Emeritus), G.S. Kopf, D.R. Lannin, D.J. Leffell (Dermatology), W.E. Longo, L.M. Manuelidis, D.C. Mulligan, D. Narayan, J.A. Persing, L. Rizzolo, S.H. Rosenbaum (Anesthesiology), R.A. Rosenthal, R.R. Salem, J. Santos-Sacchi, C.T. Sasaki, I.R. Schwartz (Emeritus), B. Sumpio, G. Tellides, J.G. Thomson, R.J. Touloukian (Emeritus), R. Udelsman (Emeritus), W.G. Yarbrough

Associate Professors D.J. Boffa, P.N. Bonde, G.G. Callender, T. Carling, C.H. Cha, A.B. Chagpar, O. Colegio (Dermatology), R.A. Cowles, A. Duffy, A. Geirsson, H. Hsia, B. Judson, B. Killelea, S. Kulkarni, F.Y. Lui, L.L. Maerz, R. Manes, A.A. Mangi, A. Maung, E. Michaelides, M.F. Perkal, K.E. Roberts, M. Schilsky (Medicine), K. Schuster, D.M. Steinbacher, W.B. Stewart, Y. Zhang

Assistant Professors M. Alperovich, R. Batra, R. Becher, B. Bhattacharya, M.S. Bianchi, J. Blasberg, L.M. Bow, J. Cardella, E. Christison-Lagay, J. Clune, U. Darr, M.L. Dewar, H. Einarsdottir, Y. Erben, S. Ghiassi, C. Gibson, D. Haakinson, D. Han, N. Horowitz, M. Hubbard, N. Isaeva, D.C. Johnson, M. Karimi, S.A. Khan, A. Liapakis (Medicine), M. Malinis (Medicine), S. Mehra, G. Nadzam, C. Ochoa Chaar, K. Oliveira, K. Orion, D. Ozgediz, T.S. Park, K. Pei, M. Pronovost, V. Reddy, J. Reguero Hernandez, D. Solomon, D.H. Stitelman, G. Tietjen, P. Yoo, N. Young, J.J. Yun, P. Zimbrean (Psychiatry)

Instructors D. Friedman, R. Sawh-Martinez

Senior Research Scientist R. Korah

Research Scientists A. Ivanova, L. Qin

Associate Research Scientists M. Camarata, B.C. Dash, V. Gunasekharan, N. Hasan, H. Hu, T. Isaji, S. Ono, A.A. Surguchev, D.P. Vangeli, T. Wang, B. Yatsula, B. Ziganshin

Clinical Professors J.E. Fenn, R.S. Stahl

Assistant Clinical Professor M.K. O’Brien

Lecturers L. Acton, B.C. Fichandler, H.H. Haversat, N.M. Hewitt, J. Hopper, L. Lazarus, J. Mendes, S.B. Michaelides, M. Narron, L. Romanelli, H.L. Warner, X. Yao

MD 2100 (SURG)/MD 2125 (EMER), Surgical Approach to the Patient Clerkship This twelve-week integrated clerkship includes surgery (six weeks, general; three weeks, specialties) and emergency medicine (three weeks) clinical components. Throughout the clerkship students participate in integrated experiences that address themes of the OR experience such as perioperative care, emergency/trauma management, procedures, medical error and patient safety, and anesthesiology. Students also participate in a twelve-week mentoring program during the clerkship. Directors: J. Bod, F. Liu; Codirectors: K. Pei, D. Stitelman

SURG 129, Cardiac Transplantation/Cardiac Assist Device Elective Intensive exposure to laboratory and clinical aspects of cardiac transplantation. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship between ongoing laboratory studies and clinical practice in this field. Students are involved in the preoperative assessment of prospective transplant candidates, donor procurement, intraoperative management, and postoperative immunosuppression. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: A. Mangi; Associate Director: P. Bonde

SURG 130, Cardiac Surgery Subinternship Intensive exposure to preoperative and postoperative management of adult and pediatric cardiac surgical patients and to intraoperative conduct of surgical procedures, with active participation in the operating room and in regular conferences. Students attend regular seminars covering major areas of cardiac surgery with members of the faculty and may be required to present a seminar on a subject in cardiac surgery to faculty and resident staff. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Maximum of four students every four weeks. Director: J.A. Elefteriades

SURG 131, Thoracic Surgery Subinternship The student is expected to be a valuable contributing team member during daily rounds, in the operating room, in the outpatient clinics, and at conferences. The majority of patients under the care of the thoracic surgery service include those with lung, esophageal, and mediastinal malignancies and infections, and many present both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Students have the opportunity to understand the multidisciplinary approach toward the management of these complex patients. Interested students can also pursue clinical research projects and papers. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One or two students every four weeks. Director: J. Blasberg

SURG 143, Surgical Critical Care Elective (YNHH) The surgical intensive care unit exposes the senior medical student to the day-to-day and minute-to-minute management of the critically ill surgical patient. The breadth of surgical disease, spanning all aspects of surgery, allows the student to understand the management of respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal failure. Advanced techniques in ventilatory management and state-of-the-art sepsis management are used. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: L.L. Maerz

SURG 144, Trauma and Emergency General Surgery Subintership A four-week exposure to the urgent surgical care of the critically ill and injured patient including those with penetrating and blunt injuries, surgical emergencies including mesenteric ischemia, bowel perforation, abdominal sepsis, necrotizing soft-tissue infections, and other urgent surgical conditions. Students are exposed to the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients with traumatic and surgical emergencies in the emergency department, surgical floors, operating rooms, and outpatient clinics; and they assume supervised primary responsibility for these patients throughout their pre-, intra- and postoperative courses. Options for involvement in clinical research projects are also available. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One or two students every four weeks. Director: F.Y. Lui

SURG 150, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Subinternship Students participate in the evaluation and reconstructive surgery of deformities of congenital, traumatic, and neoplastic origin. Students are exposed to patients in inpatient and outpatient settings as well as operating room experiences, supplemented by regular conferences. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One or two students every four weeks. Director: M. Alperovich

SURG 151, Colorectal Surgery Subinternship Students learn about the surgical care of colon and anorectal diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and mechanical pathologic processes. Students assist in the evaluation, management, and care of patients with colorectal and anorectal disease in the hospital ward, emergency room, operating room, and clinic. There is routine use of endoscopy and laparoscopy. Students may also participate in a precepted experience, with increased responsibility for patient care on the hospital ward, acting as the intern for select weekends. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: H. Einarsdottir

SURG 153, Otolaryngology Subinternship This clinical experience is independent of the Otolaryngology elective and takes place on an individual basis. It includes operating room experience, ward responsibilities, involvement in outpatient clinics, and conferences, didactics, and tumor board. The rotation is divided into two-week blocks, including the head and neck service (H&N cancer/reconstructive surgery, laryngology) and the ENT specialty service (neurotology, pediatrics, sinus/skull base, facial plastics, general). Students improve their suturing skills and become comfortable performing a thorough but efficient head and neck examination and interpreting diagnostic tests and procedures that can be useful in all medical and surgical subspecialties. At the end of the rotation, students are expected to give a seven-minute presentation on a topic of their choice at ENT grand rounds. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One or two students every four weeks. Director: S. Mehra

SURG 159, Urology Subinternship Flexible program designed to provide in-depth exposure to urology specialty areas, including uro-oncology, minimally invasive (laparoscopic) urology, endo-urology, neuro-urology, female urology, and pediatric urology. Students are part of the urologic team and participate actively in the clinic, the operating room, and on rounds. Prerequisite: at least six months of prior clinical training. One or two students every four weeks. Director: P. Motamedinia

SURG 171, Vascular Surgery Subinternship A practical experience in the diagnosis and management of vascular disease, including pre- and postoperative care. The scope of the experience includes orientation to the noninvasive vascular diagnostic laboratory, outpatient care in the Yale Vascular Center, and inpatient management (including patients in the operating room, ICU, and the vascular surgery unit). Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: C. Ochoa Chaar

SURG 172, Transplantation Surgery Subinternship This intensive clinical experience emphasizes the preoperative assessment, intraoperative care, and postoperative management of patients suffering end-stage organ system failure who are cared for by transplantation. Emphasis on the management of immunosuppressive medication regimens and the care of post-transplant problems. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: S.H. Emre

SURG 174, Surgical Oncology Subinternship Intensive exposure to surgical aspects of the treatment of cancer in the clinic, hospital, and operating room. The interaction among surgery, medical oncology, and radiation therapy is experienced by following patients receiving multiple forms of therapy. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. Maximum of four students every four weeks. Director: A.B. Chagpar

SURG 176/PEDS 143, Pediatric Surgery Subinternship This subinternship provides an in-depth exposure to the broad spectrum of pediatric surgical problems. Specific attention is given to identifying the pediatric patient in crisis, a relevant skill whether or not the student pursues a career in surgery. Objectives include understanding the correction of major congenital anomalies, management of trauma, care of the critically ill child, and management of solid tumors. Experience includes in-depth exposure to the pediatric operating room, training in neonatal and pediatric critical care, and experience in the pediatric surgical outpatient clinic. The student is an integral part of the pediatric surgical team. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. One student every four weeks. Director: E.R. Christison-Lagay

SURG 203, Otolaryngology Elective This two-week clinical elective includes experience in the operating room, wards, outpatient clinics, conferences, didactics, and tumor board; the experience is similar to the Otalaryngology Subinternship but allows students more flexibility in choosing to participate in operations and clinics of special interest to them. The rotation is divided into one-week blocks, including the head and neck service (H&N cancer/reconstructive surgery, laryngology) and the ENT specialty service (neurotology, pediatrics, sinus/skull base, facial plastics, general). Students improve their suturing skills and become comfortable performing a thorough but efficient head and neck examination and interpreting diagnostic tests and procedures that can be useful in all medical and surgical subspecialties. At the end of the rotation, students may (but are not required) to give a seven-minute presentation on a topic of their choice at the ENT grand rounds. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One or two students every two weeks. Director: S. Mehra

SURG 204, General Surgery Elective (YNHH/SRC) Students become an integral part of the resident team, supervised by the chief resident and attending physicians on the general surgery service. Students participate in the management of general surgical inpatients, preoperative evaluations, and outpatient clinics. Students are expected to participate in all teaching conferences, Grand Rounds, and clinics, and to attend the core curriculum conference each week. The goal is to provide an educational experience that will be of value to students’ eventual practice, regardless of which specialty they enter. Open to fourth-year students only. One or two students every four weeks. Director: G. Kaml

SURG 208, Burn Surgery Elective (Bridgeport Hospital) This rotation provides intensive exposure to the care of the acutely burned patient: surgical and nonsurgical care, critical care, and outpatient wound care. Large burn injuries evoke the most severe critical illness known to medicine. Patients with such injuries are unstable for prolonged periods of time and require responsive and attentive critical care. The student participates in this care, including procedures performed in the burn intensive care unit. Assessment of burn depth and the prognosis for wound healing are often far from straightforward, and the student participates in this assessment process with the rest of the team, learning to gauge depth and prognosis via examination of multiple patients. Operative therapy for burns includes excisional debridement and often split-thickness skin grafting, but there are multiple choices to be made in providing optimal care to a particular patient. The student learns the rudiments of this decision-making process and is an active participant in all operations performed by the burn team. One student every four weeks. Director: A. Savetamal

SURG 209, Congenital Heart Surgery Elective Students actively participate in the diagnosis, treatment, and operative and postoperative management of patients with congenital heart disease. Daily rounds on adult and pediatric cardiothoracic patients. Students receive a large exposure to pediatric and adult surgical cardiac ICU care. One or two students every four weeks.

SURG 211, Surgical Critical Care Subinternship (VAMC/SICU) Students are assigned advanced clinical duties in the field of surgical critical care. Students spend time in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), where they participate in the management of critically ill surgical patients, including general surgical, vascular, urologic, cardiothoracic, and neurosurgical patients. Topics covered include cardiopulmonary resuscitation, airway and ventilator management, fluid management, nutritional support, and the management of sepsis. Students can participate in all invasive procedures in the SICU, including bedside tracheostomy, percutaneous gastrostomy placement, bronchoscopy, and arterial and central venous catheter placement. Under the supervision of the intensive care attending physician, students are directly responsible for one to two critical care patients. Students present on rounds each day and assist in providing family and primary service communication. Prerequisite: completion of third-year surgery and medicine clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. Director: M.F. Perkal

SURG 217, Endocrine Surgery Subinternship This elective exposes the student to in-depth clinical and surgical aspects of endocrine surgery. Special emphasis is placed on the multidisciplinary approach to the endocrine patient, understanding the laboratory and radiologic studies, cytopathology, biochemical analysis, preoperative stabilization of patients, intraoperative decision-making, and postoperative follow-up and outpatient evaluation of patients. Technical skills are emphasized as well for students interested in improving their surgical hands. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One or two students every four weeks. Director: G. Callender

SURG 7091, Bariatric Surgery Subinternship (SRC) Students learn about the multi­disciplinary approach to bariatric surgery, its indications, types of bariatric surgery, postoperative care of these patients, and evaluation and management of complications thereof. Assisting in the care of patients in the hospital ward, emergency room, operating room, and clinic, students gain familiarity with the anatomy and pathophysiology of conditions addressed by and related to bariatric surgery; are exposed to nonbariatric cases, with minimally invasive foregut surgeries and hernia repairs; and learn the principles and applications of laparoscopy. Many cases include upper endoscopy. Prerequisite: completion of third-year clerkships. Open to fourth- and fifth-year students only. One student every four weeks. J. Passarelli

Therapeutic Radiology

HRT 140, 203.785.2956

http://medicine.yale.edu/therapeuticradiology

Professors S.J. Baserga (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), Z. Chen, R.H. Decker, J. Deng, D.C. DiMaio (Genetics), P.M. Glazer (Chair), S.A. Higgins, M.S. Moran, R. Nath, R.E. Peschel (Emeritus), K.B. Roberts, S. Rockwell (Emeritus), W. Rupp (Emeritus), R.J. Schulz (Emeritus), Y.H. Son (Emeritus), W.C. Summers (Emeritus), P. Sung (Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), J.B. Sweasy, L.D. Wilson

Professor (Adjunct) of Research K. Low

Associate Professors R.S. Bindra, D.J. Carlson, V.L. Chiang (Neurosurgery), J.N. Contessa, S. Damast, S.B. Evans, R.B. Jensen, A.A. Patel, F.A. Rogers, J.B. Yu, Z. Yun

Assistant Professors F. Guo, J.E. Hansen, Z.A. Husain, K.L. Johung, S. Kamath, W. Liu, B. McGibbon

Senior Research Scientist D.E. Brash

Associate Research Scientists M. Kaushik, H. Lee, Q. Lin, Y. Lu, W. Muhammad, A. Narayan

Clinical Professor D.E. Brash

Associate Clinical Professor J.G. Cardinale

Assistant Clinical Professors J.Y. Chung, N. Housri, C.A. Knowlton, H. Park, K.R. Patel, M. Young

Lecturer H.M. Lincoln

THER 101, Clinical Clerkship in Radiation Therapy A flexible program designed to introduce the medical student to radiation therapy. The biological and physical bases of radiation therapy, together with clinical practice and ongoing research. Clinical exposure to patients with malignant disease, with between ninety and one hundred ten treated daily in the department. The student takes part in departmental conferences, clinics, lectures, and individual teaching sessions. Limited to two students at any time. R.H. Decker and staff

THER 101b, Clinical Radiobiology This course is designed to provide residents in radiation oncology with a comprehensive review of clinical radiobiology as it applies to the practice of radiation therapy. The course is open to residents and fellows in other disciplines interested in radiobiology as it applies to clinical oncology. The course participant attends approximately twenty lectures in clinical radiobiology, which are delivered throughout the academic year between September and June. Scheduling by arrangement with Radiobiology staff

THER 201b, A Survey of Radiobiology A review of the interaction of radiation on living organisms, progressing from DNA damage to complex mammalian systems. Modern concepts in molecular biology and cell kinetics are emphasized in understanding the sequelae of this interaction and the mechanism by which the organism responds to the injury produced. Fourteen sessions. By arrangement with Radiobiology staff

THER 300, Radiation Oncology Elective A flexible program designed to introduce the student to radiation oncology. Students become familiar with the biological and physical basis of radiation oncology, together with clinical practice and ongoing research. This elective offers clinical exposure to patients with malignant disease, with between seventy-five and one hundred patients treated daily in the department. The student takes part in departmental conferences, clinics, lectures, and individual training sessions. Maximum of three students every four weeks. Director: H. Park

THER 305, Principles and Methods of Radiation Dosimetry A graduate-level course for physics students or medical students with a strong physics background who want to learn about radiation dosimetry as it applies to medical practice. Topics include X-ray spectra, ionization chambers, X-ray exposure and the roentgen, mass energy-absorption coefficients, the Bragg-Gray principle, stopping power and linear energy transfer, chemical dosimeters, instrumentation, and physical aspects of radiology. Approximately twenty hours of tutorial sessions. Scheduling by arrangement with instructor.

THER 306, Laboratory Projects in Radiation Dosimetry Students are given problems that relate to and supplement long-term, ongoing radiation dosimetry projects within the department. Prerequisite: THER 305 or its equivalent. Scheduling by arrangement with instructor.

Urology

FMP 300, 203.737.6038

http://medicine.yale.edu/urology

Professors T.C. Chai, J.W. Colberg, H.E. Foster, B. Lytton (Emeritus), D. Petrylak (Medicine), P. Schulam (Chair), R.M. Weiss

Associate Professors A.B. Hittelman, C.R. Loose (Adjunct), L.M. Rickey

Assistant Professors A. Arlen, R. Ayyagari (Radiology & Biomedical Imaging), R.S. Bercik (Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences), P.A. Kenney, S. Lambert, M. Leapman, P. Motamedinia, J.S. Rosoff, B.M. Shuch, D. Singh, P. Sprenkle

Instructors J. Brito, J. Huang

Research Scientist D.T. Martin

Associate Research Scientists M. Cartiera, K. Ghabili Amirkhiz, M. Lu, A. Suarez-Sarmiento

Clinical Professors I. Franco, S.C. Honig

Assistant Clinical Professor R.F. Stroup

Urology electives are listed under the Department of Surgery.