Courses designated “a” meet in the fall term only.
Courses designated “b” meet in the spring term only.
Courses designated “a and b” are yearlong courses.
Courses designated “c” meet in the summer term.
Bracketed courses are not offered in the current academic year.
BIS 505b, Biostatistics in Public Health II This continuation of EPH 505a covers multiple regression, analysis of variance, nonparametric tests, survival analysis, Poisson regression, and logistic regression. The course concludes with a review of commonly used statistical methods. R and SAS software is used for analysis of data. Prerequisite: EPH 505a. D. Zelterman
[BIS 511b, GIS Applications in Epidemiology and Public Health The study of epidemiology often seeks to determine associations between exposure risk and disease that are spatially dependent. Geographic information systems (GIS) are modern computer-based tools for the capture, storage, analysis, and display of spatial information. GIS technologies are just beginning to be used for public health planning and decision-making. Public health applications of GIS provide cost-effective methods for evaluation interventions and modeling future trends, and also provide a visual tool for data exploration. This class teaches the technical and design aspects of implementing a GIS project in public health and provides students with basic tools for using GIS. Examples are given to introduce a variety of applications in the field of epidemiology. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 515c, Accelerated Biostatistics This intensive seven-week summer course provides a comprehensive introduction to the use of statistics in the fields of epidemiology, public health, and clinical research. Students gain experience conducting and interpreting a broad range of statistical analyses. Topics include descriptive statistics, rules of probability, probability distributions, parameter estimation, hypothesis testing, sample size estimation, analysis of variance, nonparametric tests, and linear regression. Through computer laboratory sessions, students become familiar with the SAS statistical software package. Course is worth 2 course units. Enrollment limited to students in the Advanced Professional M.P.H. and Accelerated M.B.A./M.P.H. programs. Auditors are not allowed. M. Ciarleglio
BIS 525a and b, Seminar in Biostatistics and Journal Club The BIS departmental seminar fosters engagement with innovative statistical researchers outside Yale and exposes students to new ideas in statistical research that they may not encounter in their traditional course work. Topics discussed in seminar talks vary, but a major theme is statistical-methodological innovation in the service of public health. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. M. Kane
[BIS 538b, Survey Sampling: Methods and Management This course reviews the major sampling plans: simple stratified, systematic, and cluster random sampling. The uses of weighted data and ratio estimation are discussed. The course emphasizes application of methodology, including use of SAS and discussion of other software packages such as R and Stata. Prerequisite: BIS 505b or equivalent. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 540a, Fundamentals of Clinical Trials This course addresses issues related to the design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation of clinical trials. Topics include protocol development, examination and selection of appropriate experimental design, methods of randomization, sample size determination, appropriate methods of data analysis including time-to-event (possibly censored) data, non-inferiority studies, and interim monitoring and ethical issues. Prerequisites: EPH 505a or equivalent, and second-year status. R. Makuch
BIS 557a, Computational Statistics This is a course in the theory and practice of statistical computing. The goal of the course is to develop analytical and computational skills that will enable students to solve computational challenges in their own research. The course covers basic mathematical and statistical techniques that statisticians use when analyzing data and models for which there is no ready-made software. Every component of the course covers theoretical concepts, implementation details, and applications to real data or common statistical models that students will encounter in practice. This course is not an introduction to programming, nor is it a survey of software packages for doing statistics; the course covers fundamentals of using the R language, but students are expected to be already familiar with basic concepts in programming. M. Kane
[BIS 561b, Advanced Topics and Case Studies in Multicenter Clinical Trials This course addresses advanced issues related to the design, conduct, monitoring, and analysis of multicenter randomized clinical trials. Topics include organizational, regulatory, and human rights issues; an overview of design strategies; advanced topics in sample size estimation and monitoring; data management and quality assurance procedures; cost-effectiveness and quality of life; and case studies of vaccine trials, factorial trials, primary and secondary prevention trials, large simple trials, strategy trials, and cost-effectiveness. The case studies include many of the classical and landmark clinical trials, such as the polio vaccine field trial, Physicians Health Study, and the trials of coronary artery surgery. Prerequisite: EPH 505a. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 567a, Bayesian Statistics Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which prior beliefs for model parameters can be incorporated into an analysis and updated once data are observed. This course is designed to provide an introduction to basic aspects of Bayesian data analysis including conceptual and computational methods. Broad major topics include Bayes’s theorem, prior distributions, posterior distributions, predictive distributions, and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods. We begin by motivating the use of Bayesian methods, discussing prior distribution choices in common single parameter models, and summarizing posterior distributions in these settings. Next, we introduce computational methods needed to study multi-parameter models. R software will most often be used. We then apply these methods to more complex modeling settings including linear, generalized linear, and hierarchical models. Discussion of model comparisons and adequacy is also presented. J. Warren
BIS 575b, Introduction to Regulatory Affairs This course provides students with an introduction to regulatory affairs science, as these issues apply to the regulation of food, pharmaceuticals, and medical and diagnostic devices. The course covers a broad range of specialties that focus on issues including legal underpinnings of the regulatory process, compliance, phases of clinical testing and regulatory milestones, clinical trials design and monitoring, quality assurance, post-marketing study design in response to regulatory and other needs, and post-marketing risk management. The complexities of this process require awareness of leadership and change management skills. Topics to be discussed include: (1) the nature and scope of the International Conference on Harmonization, and its guidelines for regulatory affairs in the global environment; (2) drug development, the FDA, and principles of regulatory affairs in this environment; (3) the practice of global regulatory affairs from an industry perspective; (4) description/structure/issues of current special importance to the U.S. FDA; (5) historical background and FDA jurisdiction of food and drug law; (6) the drug development process including specification of the important milestone meetings with the FDA; (7) risk analysis and approaches to its evaluation; (8) use of Bayesian statistics in medical device evaluation, a new approach; (9) use of data monitoring committees and other statistical methods for regulatory compliance; (10) developments in leadership and change management; and (11) food quality assurance including risk analysis/compliance/enforcement. Through course participation, students also have opportunities to meet informally with faculty and outside speakers to explore additional regulatory issues of current interest. R. Makuch
BIS 600a,b, Independent Study or Directed Readings Independent study or directed readings on a specific research topic agreed upon by faculty and student. By arrangement with faculty.
BIS 610b, Applied Area Readings for Qualifying Exams Required of BIS Ph.D. students, in preparation for qualifying exams. Readings arranged with specific faculty in related research area. By arrangement with faculty.
BIS 621a, Regression Models for Public Health This course focuses on the applications of regression models and is intended for students who have completed an introductory statistics class but who wish to acquire the additional statistical skills needed for the independent conduct and analysis of study designs frequently seen in public health. Topics include model selection, implementation and interpretation for linear regression with continuous outcomes, logistic regression with binary/multinomial/ordinal outcomes, and proportional hazards regression with survival time outcomes. The class explores advanced topics within these domains including the analysis of (1) blocked and nested study designs, (2) linear contrasts and multiple comparisons, (3) longitudinal data or repeated measures, (4) missing data, and (5) pragmatic clinical trials using propensity scores to reduce selection bias, etc. SAS software is used for analysis of data. Prerequisite: EPH 505a or equivalent. E. Claus
BIS 623a, Applied Regression Analysis This course provides a focused examination of the theory and application behind linear regression. Topics include linear regression, estimation, hypothesis testing, regression diagnostics, analysis of variance, adjusting for covariates, transformations, missing data, and generalized linear models. R and SAS software is used for analysis of data. Prerequisites: EPH 505a and BIS 505b or equivalents, algebra, and calculus. E. Claus
BIS 625b, Categorical Data Analysis This course presents methods for analyzing categorical data in public health, epidemiology, and medicine. Topics include discrete distributions, contingency tables, log-linear models, and logistic regression. Emphasis is on the theory and application of the methods and the interpretation of results by applying the techniques to a variety of data sets. Prerequisites: BIS 505b or equivalent, calculus, linear algebra, and permission of the instructor. Z. Wang
[BIS 626a, Gerontologic Biostatistics: Statistical Methods for Clinical Research with Older Study Participants This course addresses the statistical issues that arise in the design, conduct, analysis, and interpretation of clinical research with older study participants and of basic aging research. Special attention is given to the conceptual understanding of the challenges involved in aging research and to the practical application of methods for meeting those challenges. Topics include issues such as multicomponent intervention clinical trials, triggered sampling observational designs, and transition modeling. All topics are illustrated with case studies from the Yale Program on Aging. Prerequisites: EPH 505a and BIS 505b. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 628b, Longitudinal and Multilevel Data Analysis This course covers methods for analyzing longitudinal data in which repeated measures have been obtained for subjects over time and for analyzing multilevel data, which can be either hierarchically or nonhierarchically structured, e.g., nested, crossed, and/or clustered. The course teaches the common analytic techniques that can be used to analyze both longitudinal data and multilevel data with both continuous and discrete responses. One defining feature of the data is the correlation among responses over time within the same subject in longitudinal data and/or among different observations within a same cluster in multilevel data, which has to be accommodated in order to make valid inference about the responses. Emphasis is on mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations (GEE). Rationales on whether population-average research or subject-/cluster-specific inference research may be more appropriate for various study designs and data types are discussed and illustrated. More advanced topics including mixture models, missing data methods, and causal inference are discussed if time allows. Analysis in presence of missing data is incorporated throughout the lectures and the labs. Emphasis is placed on applying the methods, understanding underlying assumptions, and interpreting results for analyzing real data using standard statistical software. Additional material on computational aspects and theoretic aspects of mixed models. R and SAS software is used for analysis of data. Prerequisites: BIS 623a and 625b (can be simultaneously enrolled) or equivalents. H. Lin
BIS 630b, Applied Survival Analysis This course demonstrates statistical methods for analyzing and interpreting time-to-failure data. The techniques described include the construction and analysis of failure rates, survival curves, hypothesis tests for comparing survival curves, parametric models, and semiparametric models for the analysis of time-to-failure data including the Cox proportional hazards model. Skills for using statistical software to perform the analyses are developed. In addition, study design is covered, including sample size and power calculations. Prerequisites: BIS 505b or equivalent, BIS 623a, BIS 625b (can be simultaneously enrolled), and single variable calculus. M. Ciarleglio
BIS 639b, Descriptive Analysis of Public Health Data The analysis of publicly available health data provides insight into ways of exploring disease etiology, especially when considering temporal and spatial trends in disease rates and corresponding changes that are related to putative etiologic agents. Age-period-cohort models have been an effective analytical strategy for exploring disease trends and generating hypotheses for putative risk factors to be explored using analytical studies. This course introduces methodology for extracting disease rates from public sources and using them to analyze temporal-spatial trends for disease. It also uses survey data on exposure to putative risk factors and results from analytical studies to quantify the extent that known etiology can account for disease trends. This information is also used to assess the impact of public health policy on disease control. Prerequisite: BIS 623a or 625b. T. Holford
BIS 643b, Theory of Survival Analysis This course presents the statistical theory underlying survival analysis. It covers different models of censoring and the three major approaches to analyzing this type of data: parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric methods. The application of this theory through some exemplary data sets is also presented. Prerequisites: S&DS 541a and 542b. Offered every other year. S. Ma
[BIS 645b/CB&B 647b/GENE 645b, Statistical Methods in Human Genetics Probability modeling and statistical methodology for the analysis of human genetics data are presented. Topics include population genetics, single locus and polygenic inheritance, linkage analysis, genome-wide association studies, quantitative trait locus analysis, rare variant analysis, and genetic risk predictions. Prerequisites: EPH 505a and BIS 505b or equivalents, and permission of the instructor. Offered every other year. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 646b, Nonparametric Statistical Methods and Their Applications Nonparametric statistical procedures including recursive partitioning techniques, splines, bootstrap, and other sample reuse methods are introduced. Some of the supporting theory for these methods is proven rigorously, but some is described heuristically. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are illustrated by medical and epidemiological studies. Students may be required to compare these methods with parametric methods when analyzing data sets. Familiarity with basic statistical theory and computer languages is assumed. Prerequisites: S&DS 541a and 542b. H. Zhang
[BIS 648a, Statistical Methods for Sequence Data Analysis The availability of massive amounts of sequencing data has generated both great promises and significant challenges for biological and biomedical researchers. This course focuses on the statistical and computational issues arising from the analysis of these data. Topics to be covered include data pre-processing, allele calling, RNA-seq analysis, ChIP-seq analysis, and metagenomics data analysis. The course combines methodology expositions with real data examples to illustrate the discussed methods. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 650a,b, Master’s Thesis Research The master’s thesis is not required of M.S. or M.P.H. students. Students work with faculty advisers in designing their project and writing the thesis. Detailed guidelines for the thesis are outlined in Appendix II. H. Zhao
[BIS 651b, Spatial Statistics in Public Health Statistical methods for the analysis of spatial data that arise from health studies are developed in order to account for spatially correlated outcomes. Techniques to be discussed include methodology for continuous responses such as inverse distance weighting and Kriging. Bayesian models for smoothing disease risk maps are derived. Environmental exposure models are developed. In addition, spatial/temporal models are discussed that allow the analysis of both sources of correlation. Techniques are illustrated using data from ongoing studies. Prerequisites: S&DS 541a and 542b. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 678a and BIS 681b, Statistical Practice I and II This yearlong course affords students the opportunity to gain experience and practical knowledge on how to work as a practicing biostatistician. Students learn how to collaborate with an investigator on a clinical problem; design and implement statistical approaches to further clinical research efforts under the supervision of an instructor; and communicate effectively with nonstatistical audiences. There is a strong emphasis on developing effective oral and written communication skills. Prerequisites: BIS 623a and 625b; open to second-year Biostatistics doctoral, M.S., and M.P.H. students, or by permission of the instructors. P. Peduzzi, J. Dziura, D. Esserman, L. Calvocoressi
BIS 679a, Advanced Statistical Programming in SAS and R This class offers students the chance to build on basic SAS and R programming skills. Half of the term is spent working with SAS learning how to create arrays, format data, merge and subset data from multiple sources, transpose data, and write and work with macros. The second half of the term is spent working with R learning how to work with data, program functions, write simulation code using loops, and bootstrap. Prerequisites: EPH 505a and basic knowledge of both SAS and R. D. Esserman
[BIS 691b, Theory of Generalized Linear Models This course considers a class of statistical models that generalize the linear model through the link functions of response mean. Major varieties of GLMs including models for Gaussian, Gamma, binomial, un/ordered polynomial, and Poisson responses are discussed. Goodness of fit of the models and overdispersion are considered. Extensions to correlated responses are examined through the approaches of quasi-likelihood and generalized estimating equation. The course covers both theoretical and applied aspects of data analytic issues arising from practice. Prerequisites: S&DS 542b, BIS 623a, and some knowledge of matrix calculation. Offered every other year. Not offered in 2018–2019]
BIS 692b/CB&B 645b/S&DS 645b, Statistical Methods in Computational Biology Introduction to problems, algorithms, and data analysis approaches in computational biology and bioinformatics. We discuss statistical issues arising in analyzing population genetics data, gene expression microarray data, next-generation sequencing data, microbiome data, and network data. Statistical methods include maximum likelihood, EM, Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo, and methods of classification and clustering; models include hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks, and graphical models. Prerequisite: S&DS 538a, 542b, or 661a. Prior knowledge of biology is not required, but some interest in the subject and a willingness to carry out calculations using R is assumed. Offered every other year. H. Zhao
BIS 695c, Summer Internship in Biostatistical Research The purpose of this course is to provide students with the opportunity of gaining practical experience in the analysis and the development of biostatistical methods as part of a health sciences research team including medicine, public health, pharmaceutical industry, or health care delivery. This experience provides a basis for developing a dissertation thesis proposal that has practical significance for addressing important scientific questions. Students work with a biostatistics faculty mentor to select a suitable placement for the summer intern, and a one-page description of the plans will be submitted to the instructor at least three weeks prior to starting the program, for approval within two weeks. The internship must be full-time: 35–40 hours per week for 10–12 weeks during the summer. Upon completion of the internship, a written report of the work must be submitted to the instructor no later than October 1. Prerequisite: completion of one year of the Ph.D. or M.S. program or permission of the instructor. H. Zhao
Chronic Disease Epidemiology
CDE 502a/EHS 502a, Physiology for Public Health The objective of this course is to build a comprehensive working knowledge base for each of the primary physiologic systems that respond to acute and chronic environmental stressors, as well as chronic disease states. This course follows the general framework: (1) Examine the structural and functional characteristics of given physiological system; (2) Explore how both structure and function (within and between physiological systems) work to promote health; (3) Explore how necessary features of each system (or integrated systems) are points of vulnerability that can lead to dysfunction and disease. In addition, this course offers the opportunity to examine each physiological system with respect to influences key to public health interest, e.g., age, race/ethnicity, environmental exposures, chronic disease, microbial disease, and lifestyle, including the protection afforded by healthy lifestyle factors. C. Yeckel
CDE 515c, Accelerated Epidemiology This intensive seven-week summer course provides a comprehensive overview of epidemiologic concepts and methods. Topics include measurements of disease frequency and association, study design (including randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and ecologic studies), screening principles, reliability and validity, bias, confounding, and effect modification. After completing this course, students are able to calculate and interpret epidemiologic parameters, identify the strengths and weaknesses of various study designs, and apply the principles and methods of epidemiology to the design and analysis of new studies. Not open to students in the traditional two-year M.P.H. program. M. Desai
CDE 516b, Principles of Epidemiology II This is an intermediate-level course on epidemiologic principles and methods. The course covers bias, introduction to multivariable analysis for confounder control and assessment of effect modification, indirect standardization, matching, residual confounding, survival analysis, randomized controlled trials including cluster-randomized trials, multiplicity and subgroup analysis, sample size and power, meta-analysis, screening, genetic association studies, use of biomarkers in epidemiology, and epidemic investigation. Through lectures, class discussion, readings from the peer-reviewed literature in both chronic and infectious disease epidemiology, and homework assignments, students learn to (1) evaluate the scientific merit and feasibility of epidemiologic study designs; (2) review, critique, and evaluate epidemiologic reports and research articles; (3) perform epidemiologic calculations; and (4) draw appropriate inferences from epidemiologic data, all at the intermediate level. Prerequisites: EPH 505a and 508a. H. Risch
CDE 520b, Case-Based Learning for Genetic and Environmental Diseases This course is a gateway to several updated as well as landmark public health stories with insights, analysis, and exclusives, including topics such as epigenetics, development of disease prevention, and personalized medicines. Ethical, political, and economic issues involved in the proper handling of genetic information are also discussed. Lectures are delivered using multimedia methods, including illustrations, cartoons, videos, and smart reads. Students take away the latest developments in tackling the causes of both early- and late-onset diseases; a roundup of key challenges; and skills in the appropriate design of a study, analysis, and interpretation that will be crucial for tackling the disease of their own interest in the future. Active participation in quizzes, writing, sharing personal research and opinions, and presentations are the criteria for the final grade. No prerequisites. J. Hoh
CDE 525a and b, Seminar in Chronic Disease Epidemiology This seminar is conducted once a month and focuses on speakers and topics of particular relevance to CDE students. Students are introduced to research activities of the department’s faculty members, with regular presentations by invited researchers and community leaders. The seminar is required of first-year CDE students. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. N. Hawley
CDE 532b, Epidemiology of Cancer This course applies epidemiologic methods to the study of cancer etiology and prevention. Introductory sessions cover cancer biology, carcinogenesis, cancer incidence, and mortality rates in the United States, and international variation in cancer rates. The course then focuses on risk factors for cancer (including tobacco, alcohol, hormonal factors, diet, radiation, and obesity/physical activity) and on major cancer sites (including colon, breast, and prostate). Emphasis is placed on critical reading of the literature. Prerequisite: EPH 508a. B. Cartmel
[CDE 533b, Topics in Perinatal Epidemiology This course focuses on reproduction, pregnancy, and delivery. Students obtain a foundation in reproductive biology with practical applications to epidemiologic research. Current and landmark studies in perinatal epidemiology are critically reviewed from a methodological perspective. Topics studied may include issues such as infertility, miscarriage, fetal growth retardation, pregnancy complications, preterm labor and delivery, aspects of prenatal care, congenital malformations, SIDS, and infant mortality. Students actively participate in a seminar format and develop an understanding of what evidence is needed to establish causal relationships in this specialty. Implications of research findings for public health policy, individual decision-making, and future studies are considered. Prerequisite: EPH 508a. Not offered in 2018–2019]
CDE 534b, Applied Analytic Methods in Epidemiology This computer lab-based course provides students with a comprehensive overview of data management and data analysis techniques. The SAS statistical software program is used. Students learn how to create and manipulate data sets and variables using SAS; identify appropriate statistical tests and modeling approaches to evaluate epidemiologic associations; and perform a broad array of univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses using SAS and interpret the results. Prerequisites: EPH 505a and 508a; or, for Advanced Professional M.P.H. students, successful completion of EPH 515c or permission of the instructor. M. Desai
CDE 535b, Epidemiology of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart disease and stroke are among the leading causes of death and disability among industrialized nations. This course introduces students to the major categories of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. Students are challenged to think about how individual diseases contribute to the epidemic of vascular disease in the United States. In this course, students learn basic principles about the rates of disease, risk factors, clinical trial results, and outcomes of heart disease and stroke. Through the analysis of actual studies, students apply basic epidemiology to critically evaluate current literature and topics in this field. Sessions include a clinical overview of a specific disease or risk factor, as well as highly interactive discussion of a specific epidemiologic topic or principle. Students are encouraged to develop their own solutions to current gaps in the epidemiologic literature. J. Lichtman
CDE 543a/EMD 543a/GLBL 567a, Global Aspects of Food and Nutrition The course presents a core topic in global health and development that is at the intersection of science, society, and policy. The course familiarizes students with leading approaches to analyzing the causes of malnutrition in countries around the world and to designing and evaluating nutrition interventions. It covers micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies; approaches to reducing malnutrition; the cultural, economic, environmental, agricultural, and policy context within which malnutrition exists; and the relationships between common infections and nutritional status. D. Humphries
CDE 545a, Health Disparities by Race and Social Class: Application to Chronic Disease Epidemiology One of four overarching goals of Healthy People 2020 is to “achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.” This course explores disparities in the chronic diseases that contribute disproportionately to ill health, resource utilization, reduced quality of life, and mortality. Taking a life course perspective as we explore disparities across the spectrum of chronic diseases, we focus on differences in health between diverse racial/ethnic and/or socioeconomic groups, primarily in the United States. The primary focus of this course is on understanding the determinants and consequences of health disparities, learning to critically evaluate health disparities research, and thinking creatively about elimination strategies. B. Jones
CDE 551b, Global Noncommunicable Disease This course focuses on the contemporary burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), with a particular focus on the health impact of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. The first part of the course briefly covers the etiology and global distribution of four key NCDs: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes. We then discuss the shared behavioral, metabolic, and physiologic risk factors for these diseases and explore how NCDs are associated with economic development, globalization, and the demographic and health transitions. The second half of the course focuses concretely on approaches to NCD intervention, from individual-level approaches to coordinated global action. The last five lectures are by guest speakers offering insight into the successes and challenges of their own intervention attempts. N. Hawley
CDE 562b, Nutrition and Chronic Disease This course provides students with a scientific basis for understanding the role of nutrition and specific nutrients in the etiology, prevention, and management of chronic diseases. Nutrition and cancer are particularly emphasized. Other topics addressed include cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and aging. Implications for federal nutrition policy, such as dietary guidelines, dietary supplement regulations, and food labeling, are discussed. L. Ferrucci
CDE 572a, Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle Interventions This course reviews the methods and evaluation of obesity prevention and lifestyle interventions conducted in multiple settings (e.g., individual, family, and community settings, as well as policy-level interventions). Topics include physical activity, nutrition, and weight-loss interventions in various populations (children, adults, those who are healthy, and those with chronic diseases). The course combines didactic presentations, discussion, and a comprehensive review of a particular lifestyle intervention by students. This course is intended to increase the student’s skills in evaluating and conducting obesity prevention and lifestyle interventions. M. Irwin
CDE 597a, Genetic Concepts in Public Health The widespread availability of genetic data has resulted in the translation of genetics into a variety of public health settings. At the core of public health genetics is the rapidly growing science of genetic epidemiology, the study of the role of human genetic variation in determining disease risk in families and populations. This course focuses on the design, analysis, and interpretation of genetic epidemiologic studies. Topics covered include Mendelian laws of inheritance; recombination and linkage disequilibrium; types of genetic variation; molecular technologies for detection of genetic variation; study designs and statistical analysis methods used in genetic epidemiologic studies; and the translation of genetic epidemiologic findings into genetic testing and screening programs. The course provides an understanding of the role of the public health sciences of epidemiology and statistics in the study of human genetics, and of the role of genetics in public health. Prerequisite: previous course work in biology or genetics (BIOL 101–104 series for Yale College students) or permission of the instructor. A. DeWan
CDE 600a,b, Independent Study or Directed Readings Independent study or directed readings on a specific research topic agreed upon by faculty and student. By arrangement with faculty.
CDE 610b, Applied Area Readings for Qualifying Exams Required of CDE Ph.D. students, in preparation for qualifying exams. Readings arranged with specific faculty in related research area. By arrangement with faculty.
CDE 617b, Developing a Research Proposal Each student develops a research grant proposal independently. This includes the development of a research question, specific aims, study hypotheses, reviewing and summarizing relevant scientific literature, choosing a study design, and developing a data collection and analysis strategy. Students submit drafts of sections of the grant proposal throughout the course and resubmit the revised proposal to the instructor for a final grade. Prerequisite: EPH 505a, BIS 505b (can be taken concurrently), CDE 516b (can be taken concurrently), doctoral status, or permission of the instructor. Auditors are not allowed. J. Lichtman
CDE 619a, Advanced Epidemiologic Research Methods This advanced course focuses on quantitative issues and techniques relevant to the design and analysis of observational epidemiologic studies. Starting with formal definitions of the commonly used epidemiologic parameters, and assuming a working knowledge of ANOVA and linear regression, the course covers analyses based on various related types of regression, e.g., logistic, Poisson, Cox, etc. The GLIM and PECAN computer programs are described and used throughout. Students analyze and discuss data sets of generally increasing complexity. Prerequisite: EPH 505a, BIS 505b, doctoral status, or permission of the instructor. H. Risch
CDE 650a, Introduction to Evidence-Based Medicine and Health Care Evidence-based medicine and health care use best current evidence in addressing clinical or public health questions. This course introduces principles of evidence-based practice in formulating clinical or public health questions, systematically searching for evidence, and applying it to the question. Types of questions include examining the comparative effectiveness of clinical and public health interventions, etiology, diagnostic testing, and prognosis. Particular consideration is given to the meta-analytic methodology of synthesizing evidence in a systematic review. Also addressed is the role of evidence in informing economic analysis of health care programs and clinical practice guidelines. Using a problem-based approach, students contribute actively to the classes and small-group sessions. Students complete a systematic review in their own field of interest using Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Prerequisite: CDE 516b or permission of the instructor. S. Wang
CDE 670a,b, Advanced Field Methods in Public Health The course offers direct experience in field methods in chronic disease epidemiology for doctoral students and advanced M.P.H. students. Students are expected to actively participate as part of a research team (8–10 hours per week) doing field research in some aspect of chronic disease epidemiology. It is expected that their progress will be directly supervised by the principal investigator of the research project. This course can be taken for one or two terms and may be taken for credit. Prerequisite: arrangement with a faculty member must be made in advance of registration. J. Lichtman
Environmental Health Sciences
EHS 502a/CDE 502a, Physiology for Public Health The objective of this course is to build a comprehensive working knowledge base for each of the primary physiologic systems that respond to acute and chronic environmental stressors, as well as chronic disease states. This course follows the general framework: (1) Examine the structural and functional characteristics of given physiological system; (2) Explore how both structure and function (within and between physiological systems) work to promote health; (3) Explore how necessary features of each system (or integrated systems) are points of vulnerability that can lead to dysfunction and disease. In addition, this course offers the opportunity to examine each physiological system with respect to influences key to public health interest, e.g., age, race/ethnicity, environmental exposures, chronic disease, microbial disease, and lifestyle, including the protection afforded by healthy lifestyle factors. C. Yeckel
EHS 503b/F&ES 896b, Public Health Toxicology This course is designed to serve as a foundation for understanding public health toxicology in the twenty-first century. Although it includes the basic principles of toxicology such as dose response and mechanisms of toxicity and cellular defense, this course introduces new concepts of toxicology such as lifetime exposures, low-level exposure to mixtures, high-throughput screening and computational toxicology, and green chemistry in order to understand fundamental interactions between chemicals and biological systems and possible health outcomes. Through the use of case studies and up-to-date published research, the course provides insights into prevention of mortality and morbidity resulting from environmental exposure to toxic substances, the next-generation risk assessment and regulatory toxicology, and the causes underlying the variability in susceptibility of people to chemicals. V. Vasiliou
EHS 507a, Environmental Epidemiology This focuses on application of epidemiology principles and methods to the study of environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes. The major focus on environmental exposures includes both physical and chemical exposures, i.e., environmental chemicals and pesticides, air pollution, radiation, etc. Emphasis is placed on designing population-based studies to investigate environmental issues and human health, critically reviewing literatures and interpreting environmental epidemiologic research data, identifying challenges involved in studying environmental exposures and human health, and analyzing data of environmental exposures and human health. Gene-environment interactions, an essential component when studying environmental hazards in relation to human health, are also addressed and discussed. Prerequisites: EPH 508a and BIS 505b, or permission of the instructor. Y. Zhang
EHS 508b/F&ES 897b, Environmental and Occupational Exposure Science This course examines the fundamental and practical aspects of assessing exposures to environmental agents, broadly defined, in the residential, ambient, and workplace environments. The course provides the knowledge and skills to design and conduct exposure assessments, and has a particular focus on applications to environmental epidemiology and risk assessment. Indirect and direct methods of assessing exposures, such as questionnaires, environmental sampling, biological monitoring, and spatial modeling, are reviewed; and case studies and hands-on projects are presented. N. Deziel
EHS 511b/F&ES 893b, Principles of Risk Assessment This course introduces students to the nomenclature, concepts, and basic skills of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The goal is to provide an understanding necessary to read and critically evaluate and perform QRA. Emphasis is on the intellectual and conceptual basis of risk assessment, particularly its dependence on toxicology, epidemiology, and exposure assessment. Quantitation of exposure and dose response provides practical skills and theoretical background, although not detailed in mathematical and model derivations. Specific cases consider the use of risk assessment for setting occupational exposure limits, establishing community exposure limits, and quantifying the hazards of environmental exposures to chemicals in air, drinking water, consumer products, and the built environment. G. Ginsberg
EHS 525a and b, Seminar and Journal Club in Environmental Health Students are introduced to a wide variety of research topics, policy topics, and applications in environmental health science. The course consists of seminar presentations and journal club meetings that alternate weekly. The seminar series includes biweekly presentations by EHS faculty and outside experts, followed by a discussion period. The journal club series includes student presentations and discussion on one or two scientific literatures related to the seminar topic of the following week. This course is designed to promote critical thinking regarding current topics in environmental health science as well as to help students develop topics for their theses. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. Y. Chen
EHS 537a/EMD 537a/GLBL 569a, Water, Sanitation, and Global Health Water is essential for life, and yet unsafe water poses threats to human health globally, from the poorest to the wealthiest countries. More than two billion people around the world lack access to clean, safe drinking water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH). This course focuses on the role of water in human health from a public health perspective. The course provides a broad overview of the important relationships between water quality, human health, and the global burden of waterborne diseases. It discusses the basics of water compartments and the health effects from exposures to pathogenic microbes and toxic chemicals in drinking water. It also covers different sanitation solutions to improve water quality and disease prevention and discusses future challenges and the need for intervention strategies in the new millennium. Y. Chen, E. Wunder
EHS 545b, Molecular Epidemiology Many diseases are the outcome of a complex inter-relationship between multiple genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. This course covers basic concepts of human genetics as well as recent discoveries in the field of epigenetics, which are fundamental to understanding how individuals differ in their susceptibility to environmental agents and how these susceptibilities change over time. Current knowledge of molecular approaches to identifying specific genetic variations and epigenetic alterations associated with human diseases are introduced, and their roles in gene-environment interactions and disease development are discussed. The course includes formal lectures, article discussions, and laboratory components, which provide hands-on experiences of some commonly used molecular techniques for detecting genetic and epigenetic changes. Y. Zhu
[EHS 547a, Climate Change and Public Health This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to examining relationships between climate change and public health. After placing climate change in the context of the Anthropocene and planetary health and exploring the fundamentals of climate change science, the course covers impacts of climate change on public health, including heat waves; occupational heat stress; tropospheric ozone; wildfires; aeroallergens; vector-borne, foodborne, and waterborne diseases; water scarcity; food security; migration; violent conflict; natural disasters; and health benefits of climate change mitigation. The course integrates climate justice issues and adaptation strategies into the discussion of specific topics. The course is reading-intensive and makes ample use of case studies, with a focus on critical reading of the literature. Prerequisite: EPH 513b or permission of the instructor. Not offered in 2018–2019]
EHS 562b, Applications in Systems Biology in Public Health Systems biology tools such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are being increasingly integrated into epidemiology and public health studies. These multilayered investigations offer a deeper understanding of the complexity of disease etiology, allowing the identification of contributors to disease as well as their interactions, avenues for prevention, early diagnosis, and therapeutics. This course focuses on understanding the different types of -omic tools that can be used within epidemiology, including those listed, as well as newer approaches such as exposome and microbiome analysis. Lectures concentrate on understanding terminology, experimental design, methodologies, and types of data generated with a hands-on data processing class, enabling students to read and critique research in this field. The course also critically discusses the use of and challenges associated with biomarkers generated from these tools. Case studies show the application of these tools in epidemiology and translational research. C. Johnson
EHS 573b, Epidemiological Issues in Occupational and Environmental Medicine This course explores issues around the detection and characterization of health outcomes from environmental and occupational exposures. Case studies include infectious disease outbreaks, cancer clusters in the general environment and within industrial settings, groundwater contaminations and birth defects, lung diseases and cancers following the World Trade Center attacks, health sequelae in military populations, radon exposures and lung cancers in miners and in the general population, exposures among marginalized populations. The course is taught in discussion format by occupational and environmental medicine faculty. There is a take-home final examination. M. Russi, M. Slade
EHS 575a, Introduction to Occupational and Environmental Medicine This course presents a broad overview of the fundamental concepts of occupational and environmental medicine (OEM), including the major workplace and environmental hazards and stressors (chemical, physical, biological, psychosocial), the settings in which they occur, major related illnesses and injuries, and preventive strategies. The key role of exposure assessment, industrial hygiene, ergonomics, epidemiology, toxicology, and regulatory and ethical factors in the recognition and prevention of work and environment-related health effects is incorporated throughout the course. The course includes lectures, workplace site visits, and article discussions. There are no prerequisites. C. Redlich, M. Stowe
EHS 581b, Public Health Emergencies: Disaster Planning and Response This course focuses on operational aspects of planning and response to domestic and international public health and medical emergencies. Under the National Response Framework, public health and medical components of emergency response are grouped in Emergency Support Function #8 (ESF 8). Many states and local jurisdictions organize their responses similarly. ESF #8 encompasses seventeen core functions. The course primarily emphasizes U.S. domestic scenarios and familiarity with U.S. government guidance documents, but international response analogies and distinctions are included for illustration of some concepts. S. Bogucki, J. McGovern
EHS 585a/F&ES 898a, The Environment and Human Health This course provides an overview of the critical relationships between the environment and human health. The class explores the interaction between health and different parts of the environmental system including water, air pollution, environmental justice, and occupational health. Other topics include exposure assessment, case studies of environmental health disasters, links between climate change and health, and integration of scientific evidence on environmental health. Students learn about current key topics in environmental health and how to critique and understand scientific studies. The course incorporates lectures and discussion. Enrollment limited to twenty-five.
EHS 600a,b, Independent Study or Directed Readings Independent study or directed readings on a specific research topic agreed upon by faculty and student. By arrangement with faculty.
EHS 610b, Applied Area Readings for Qualifying Exams Required of EHS Ph.D. students, in preparation for qualifying exams. Readings arranged with specific faculty in related research area. By arrangement with faculty.
EHS 620a and b, Research Rotation This course is required of all EHS Ph.D. students during their first academic year. The research rotations are in EHS laboratories that are able to accommodate students. Research rotations are available for both “dry” (i.e., statistical analysis) and “wet” (i.e., bench) laboratory research groups. The student meets with the EHS graduate faculty member at the beginning of the rotation for an explanation of the goals and expectations of a student in the laboratory. The student becomes familiar with the research models, approaches, and methods utilized by the research group through interactions with other laboratory/research personnel and from laboratory manuscripts. The student is expected to spend at least fifteen hours per week working in the laboratory or research group and to present a rotation seminar at the end of the rotation period. V. Vasiliou
Epidemiology and Public Health
EPH 100a, Professional Skills Series The Professional Skills Series is intended to prepare M.P.H. students for leadership positions as public health professionals. Material covered includes public speaking, presentation skills, professional writing, negotiation and conflict resolution, and networking and social media. Attendance at all sessions is required (elective for Advanced Professional M.P.H. and Accelerated M.B.A./M.P.H. students), and some homework is a part of the program. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. F. Spencer, K. Shay
EPH 500b, Public Health Practicum This course is one of the options available to students to fulfill the practice requirement for the M.P.H. degree. The course design combines experiential learning and guided classroom discussion. Students are assigned to a field placement in an appropriate setting that affords the opportunity to apply public health concepts and competencies learned in the classroom through a practice experience that is relevant to the student’s areas of specialization. Emphasis is placed on situating students in community-based organizations and other public health service settings such as local or state health departments, where they can work on authentic public health problems and issues. This course provides a means for students to gain exposure to the mission and activities of diverse public health organizations and thus may help to inform their decisions about professional work pursuits upon completion of the M.P.H. degree. Open only to second-year M.P.H. students, Advanced Professional M.P.H. students, and Accelerated M.B.A./M.P.H. students. E. O’Keefe, D. Frankel-Gramelis
EPH 505a, Biostatistics in Public Health This course provides an introduction to the use of statistics in medicine and public health. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability distributions, parameter estimation, hypothesis testing, analysis of contingency tables, analysis of variance, regression models, and sample size and power considerations. Students develop the skills necessary to perform, present, and interpret statistical analyses using R software. M. Wininger
EPH 506a,b, Continuous Study This course is for M.P.H. students who have completed all required course work but are in “thesis pending” status. Students in this category must be registered for continuous study each term of the regular academic year until all remaining requirements have been completed (except in the case of approved Leave of Absence). Students are permitted to register for continuous study for a maximum of two terms. No credit or grade is awarded.
EPH 507a, Social Justice and Health Equity This course outlines the social and structural determinants related to health inequities in the United States and globally. Conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical approaches to understanding social justice and health equity are explored, with a focus on health determinants including health care, social class, poverty, oppression and power, stigma and discrimination, and neighborhood and social factors. The course takes a multidisciplinary approach, integrating methods and research from epidemiology, social sciences, and medicine to explore the individual, interpersonal, community, and societal influences that lead to healthy and unhealthy outcomes. T. Kershaw
EPH 508a, Foundations of Epidemiology and Public Health This course presents an introduction to epidemiologic definitions, concepts, and methods. Topics include history of epidemiology, descriptive epidemiology, measurement of disease occurrence and association, study design (ecologic, cross-sectional, case-control studies, cohort, and intervention), surveillance, measurement validity and screening, random variation and precision, bias, confounding, effect modification, and causality. The course also teaches skills for quantitative problem solving and for understanding epidemiologic concepts in the published literature. L. Niccolai
EPH 510a, Health Policy and Health Care Systems This course provides an introduction to the making, understanding, and consequences of health policy. The design and performance of the health care system are assessed, with particular attention to the complex and often contested manner in which health care is organized, financed, and delivered in the United States. The course also considers the fundamental concerns—such as cost, access, and quality—that shape the development of health policy and health systems in all countries, and it looks to the health systems of other countries in order to understand the advantages and disadvantages of alternative approaches. An overview of the important actors in the health care and political systems is provided, and students are introduced to methods for understanding the behavior of these policy makers and stakeholders. Health issues are placed in the context of broader social goals and values. J. Schwartz
EPH 513b, Social, Environmental, and Biological Determinants of Major Health Threats This course introduces students to three major health threats: global climate change, antibiotic resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The goal is to achieve foundational knowledge of environmental factors in population health; ecological perspectives in human, animal, and ecosystem health (one health); biological and genetic factors that affect population health; as well as the impact of globalization on global disease burden. The course’s modular format includes mixed lecture, case study, and vignette approaches. Small, cross-disciplinary groups are used throughout the term to actively apply concepts, hone data interpretation skills, and frame research and health solution projects. Importantly, this group structure is used to implement an overarching leadership skills module to permit conversations, problem solving, and projects for each module. The course culminates in planning, designing, communicating, and pitching innovative major health threat solutions. C. Yeckel
EPH 515a, Ethics and Public Health: An Introduction This four-session seminar introduces students to the ethical implications of public health programs, policies, and research initiatives; their historical roots; and the regulations and guidelines governing human subjects research in the United States and internationally. Case studies are used to demonstrate selected ethical challenges in public health policy, practice, and research. In addition, students learn the functions and procedures of Yale’s Human Research Protection Program and complete its web-based training on human subjects research. M.P.H. students are required to take the course during the first year of the program. K. Khoshnood
EPH 520c, Summer Internship The Internship is a degree requirement that is completed in the summer between the first and second academic years. Students work with their faculty advisers, the Career Management Center, and the Office of Public Health Practice to identify suitable public health placements such as medical care facilities, community agencies, public health departments, research projects, laboratories, and other sites engaged in public health activities. The internship experience sometimes serves as a basis for the M.P.H. thesis. The internship is displayed on the transcript with a grade of “S” (Satisfactory) upon completion. A course unit is not given for the summer internship.
All students, with the exception of those in the Advanced Professional M.P.H. Program and the Accelerated M.B.A./M.P.H. Program, must complete an approved Summer Internship. The Summer Internship may be used to complete the practice requirement for the M.P.H. degree with prior approval from the Office of Public Health Practice.
EPH 525b, Thesis The thesis (2 course units) is typically a yearlong project that is completed in the second academic year and is the culmination of the student’s educational experience at YSPH. It is frequently a report of a small research project performed independently by the student. Students work with faculty advisers in designing their project and in writing the thesis. Detailed guidelines for the thesis are outlined in Appendix II.
The thesis is not a requirement for students in the Biostatistics, Health Care Management, Health Policy, or Advanced Professional M.P.H. programs (except for those in the Occupational and Environmental Medicine track).
EPH 542b, Practice-Based Community Health Research This course is one of the options available to students to fulfill the practice requirement for the M.P.H. degree. The course develops students’ skills in planning and implementing practice-based community health research projects. The course content is based on an ecological framework, principles of community and public health ethics, and a teaching strategy of significant learning experiences and team-based learning. Given the current emphasis on using evidence-based practices in public health, this course helps students develop skills in turning practice activities and data into evidence. Teams of four to six students work on a community-driven research project at a local agency based on proposals submitted by a range of community organizations. Through this exercise and related assignments throughout the term, students develop skills in planning and implementing practice-based research projects, including developing project timelines, logic models, and program impact theories. D. Humphries
EPH 555b, Practicum in Climate Change, Sustainability, and Public Health In this course, interdisciplinary student teams carry out applied public health research or practical projects in the area of climate change, sustainability, and public health. Each team works with a sponsoring organization (e.g., unit within Yale, local health department, state agency, community organization, other nongovernmental organization). Students apply for entry into the course in the fall. Admitted students join one of the student teams, which implement their projects during the spring term. The course affords the opportunity to apply concepts and competencies learned in the classroom to this important area of climate change, sustainability, and public health. This course is one of the options available to students to fulfill the practice requirement for the M.P.H. degree. R. Dubrow
EPH 581a,b, Seminar for Modeling in Public Health This yearlong, monthly seminar is targeted most specifically to students in the Public Health Modeling concentration but open to all interested members of the Yale community. The seminar features talks by faculty from across Yale University doing modeling-related research, as well as invited speakers from other universities and public health agencies. The objectives of the course are to offer students the opportunity to witness the scope and range of questions in public health policy and practice that may be addressed, understood, and informed using model-based approaches; appreciate the breadth of public health modeling research being conducted around the University and beyond; explore possible collaborations/relationships with other scholars and professionals; review, critique, and evaluate model-based public health research in a structured environment; and form their own opinions regarding the applicability, relevance, and responsible use of modeling methods. This no-credit seminar is required of students in the Public Health Modeling concentration, who must register for the seminar during at least two terms of enrollment. For each class, one or two readings are circulated/posted on the course website prior to the talk. Students are encouraged to read the articles and articulate questions for the speaker. V. Pitzer, F. Crawford
EPH 591a, Global Health Seminar This weekly seminar exposes students in the health professions to key issues in global health research and practice. The course features faculty from across the health professional schools and other global health experts from around the world. Its collaborative nature provides a rich environment for interdisciplinary dialogue. The goal of the course is for students to attain a good understanding of key issues upon which they may base future research, service, and clinical pursuits in the field of global health. Although no course credit is awarded, satisfactory performance is noted on the student’s transcript. M. Skonieczny
EPH 600a, Research Ethics and Responsibility This course seeks to introduce major concepts in the ethical conduct of research and some of the personal and professional issues that researchers encounter in their work. Sessions are run in a seminar/discussion format. Prerequisite: doctoral student or postdoctoral status only. C. Tschudi
EPH 608b, Frontiers of Public Health This course is designed for Ph.D. and Advanced Professional M.P.H. students. It explores the major public health achievements in the last century in order to provide students with a conceptual interdisciplinary framework by which effective interventions are developed and implemented. Discussions examine the advances across disciplines of biomedical research, epidemiology and biostatistics, environmental and behavioral sciences, and health policy and management services that led to these major public health achievements. The course examines global and national trends in the burden of disease and underlying determinants of disease, which pose new challenges; and it covers new approaches that are on the forefront of addressing current and future public health needs. A. Ko
Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases
EMD 512a, Immunology for Epidemiologists This course is designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of immunology including antigens, antibodies, methods for detecting antibodies, cells of the immune system, products of such cells, and immune mechanisms. Experience is gained in the analysis of primary research papers with relevance to immunologic aspects of epidemiologic studies. Prerequisite: two terms of college biology. P. Krause
EMD 518a, Principles of Infectious Diseases I This course explores the epidemiology and biology of infectious agents and the diseases they cause. Through a theme-based, integrated approach, students learn about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and control of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotic parasites of public health importance. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological methods, routes of transmission, host-pathogen interactions, and mechanisms of virulence. The course also teaches skills for understanding and evaluating the published literature, specifically through class discussions and oral presentations of assigned readings by students. Topics covered include gastrointestinal, respiratory, and sexually transmitted pathogens. M. Pettigrew
EMD 518b, Principles of Infectious Diseases II This course explores the epidemiology and biology of infectious agents and the diseases they cause. Through a theme-based, integrated approach, students learn about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and control of bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotic parasites of public health importance. Emphasis is placed on epidemiological methods, routes of transmission, host-pathogen interactions, and mechanisms of virulence. The course also teaches skills for understanding and evaluating the published literature, specifically through class discussions and oral presentations of assigned readings by students. The course builds upon concepts covered in EMD 518a and introduces new topics such as infectious causes of chronic diseases; and vector-borne, zoonotic, and emerging pathogens. J. Childs
EMD 525a and b, Seminar in Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases This is a weekly seminar series offered by EMD faculty. The presentations describe the ongoing research activities in faculty laboratories as well as in EMD-affiliated centers. The talks introduce the department’s research activities as well as associated resources in the area. Attendance is required of first-year EMD students. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. D. Weinberger
EMD 530b, Health Care Epidemiology: Improving Health Care Quality through Infection Prevention The history, descriptive epidemiology, surveillance methods, risk analysis methods, and economics of nosocomial infections are outlined in this introductory course. In-depth explorations of host, agent, and environmental factors influencing typical nosocomial illnesses in pediatric and adult services are reviewed by clinical faculty. Descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods are emphasized. L. Dembry, D. Banach
EMD 533a, Implementation Science Implementation science can be defined as the study of facilitators and barriers to the adoption and integration of evidence-based practices into health care policy and delivery. Examples include comparisons of multiple evidence-based interventions; adaptation of interventions according to population and setting; approaches to scale-up of effective interventions; and development of innovative approaches to improve health care delivery and health. This course explores implementation science using a seminar format; each session begins with a brief presentation of focal topic content followed by critical thinking and dialogue. Students apply the content each week in the development of a potential research project using implementation science in their area of interest and expertise. Throughout the course, faculty and students bring case studies and illustrations from the literature to illustrate key concepts and challenges in the conceptualization and implementation of studies using these methods. J.L. Davis
[EMD 536b, Investigation of Disease Outbreaks This course provides students with the basic skills and perspectives necessary to investigate acute disease outbreaks. The emphasis is on the use of epidemiology to investigate outbreaks of infectious diseases, although the methods are not limited and can be applied to outbreaks of noninfectious diseases as well. Through this course, it is hoped that students will gain a better appreciation of epidemiology as the science of public health and of the use of epidemiology to guide public health interventions and the development of public health policy. Offered every other year. Not offered in 2018–2019]
EMD 537a/EHS 537a/GLBL 569a, Water, Sanitation, and Global Health Water is essential for life, and yet unsafe water poses threats to human health globally, from the poorest to the wealthiest countries. More than two billion people around the world lack access to clean, safe drinking water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH). This course focuses on the role of water in human health from a public health perspective. The course provides a broad overview of the important relationships between water quality, human health, and the global burden of waterborne diseases. It discusses the basics of water compartments and the health effects from exposures to pathogenic microbes and toxic chemicals in drinking water. It also covers different sanitation solutions to improve water quality and disease prevention and discusses future challenges and the need for intervention strategies in the new millennium. Y. Chen, E. Wunder
EMD 538a, Quantitative Methods for Infectious Disease Epidemiology This course provides an overview of statistical and analytical methods that apply specifically to infectious diseases. The assumption of independent outcomes among individuals that underlies most traditional statistical methods often does not apply to infections that can be transmitted from person to person. Therefore, novel methods are often needed to address the unique challenges posed by infectious disease data. Topics include analysis of outbreak data, estimation of vaccine efficacy, time series methods, and Markov models. The course consists of lectures and computer labs in which students gain experience analyzing example problems using a flexible computer programming language (MATLAB). V. Pitzer
EMD 539b, Introduction to Public Health Surveillance Surveillance is one of the fundamental activities of public health organizations and is critical for understanding disease burden, impacts of interventions, and the detection of unusual events. The first part of the course provides an overview of the types of surveillance systems and their strengths and weakness, sources of data for surveillance, and controversies resulting from surveillance activities. The second part of the course focuses on methods used to analyze surveillance data, with a particular focus on practical application. There is a focus throughout on the critical evaluation of surveillance data from different sources. D. Weinberger
EMD 540b, Responding to Violent Conflict: Epidemiologic Methods and Public Health Interventions In this course we discuss how epidemiological methods are applied to understand specific health consequences of violent conflicts, including infectious diseases, mental health, maternal/child health, and chronic health problems. In addition, we critically examine interventions employed to mitigate these negative consequences and assess the evidentiary basis for their efficacy with the goal of understanding what makes some interventions more successful than others. Throughout the course, we consider inevitable ethical challenges of conducting research in fragile settings and with vulnerable populations who often lack basic services and are suffering human rights violations. K. Khoshnood
EMD 543a/CDE 543a/GLBL 567a, Global Aspects of Food and Nutrition The course presents a core topic in global health and development that is at the intersection of science, society, and policy. The course familiarizes students with leading approaches to analyzing the causes of malnutrition in countries around the world and to designing and evaluating nutrition interventions. It covers micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies; approaches to reducing malnutrition; the cultural, economic, environmental, agricultural, and policy context within which malnutrition exists; and the relationships between common infections and nutritional status. D. Humphries
EMD 548b/ARCG 762b/F&ES 726b/G&G 562b, Observing Earth from Space A practical introduction to satellite image analysis of Earth’s surface. Topics include the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, satellite-borne radiometers, data transmission and storage, computer image analysis, the merging of satellite imagery with GIS and applications to weather and climate, oceanography, surficial geology, ecology and epidemiology, forestry, agriculture, archaeology, and watershed management. Prerequisites: college-level physics or chemistry, two courses in geology and natural science of the environment or equivalents, and computer literacy. X. Lee
EMD 550b/682b/E&EB 650b/F&ES 891b, Biology of Insect Disease Vectors Insects transmit pathogens that cause many emerging and re-emerging human and agriculture-related diseases. Many of these diseases, which are referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), have a dramatically negative impact on human health in the developing world. Furthermore, they cause indirect devastation by significantly reducing agricultural productivity and nutrient availability, exacerbating poverty and deepening disparities. This course introduces students to the biological interactions that occur between major groups of important disease vectors and the pathogens they transmit. Lectures cover current research trends that relate to the ecology and physiology of insect vectors. Course content focuses on how these aspects of vector biology relate to the development and implementation of innovative and effective disease-control strategies. Prerequisite: full year of college/university-level biology, or permission of the instructor(s). Offered every other year. S. Aksoy, B. Weiss
EMD 553b, Transmission Dynamic Models for Understanding Infectious Diseases This course is an introduction to the use of transmission dynamic models as tools for studying the complex patterns that arise from the interaction between pathogens and hosts. Topics covered include the structure, parameterization, and analysis of simple mathematical models. Questions addressed include: Why do some pathogens fail to spread effectively in a host community while others increase in prevalence before eventual elimination? Why do some infections oscillate in frequency while others occur at relatively constant levels over long periods of time? How is it possible that an intervention could perversely increase the burden of disease in the community, even as it reduces the overall prevalence of infection? The course consists of lectures and practical exercises in which students gain experience designing and manipulating mathematical models of infectious diseases by hand and with the open-source programming language R. Knowledge of algebra is assumed, and familiarity with basic calculus concepts is helpful. There are no formal prerequisites, but students without any familiarity with infectious diseases are encouraged to contact the instructor before registering. This course is required of students in the Public Health Modeling concentration. T. Cohen
EMD 563a or b, Laboratory and Field Studies in Infectious Diseases The student gains hands-on training in laboratory or epidemiologic research techniques. The term is spent working with EMD faculty in a single laboratory or epidemiology research group. Students choosing to work in the laboratory gain experience in molecular biology, basic immunology, parasitology, virology, bacteriology, or vector biology. Students may also choose to work on a non-laboratory-based epidemiology research project. These students gain experience in epidemiologic methods including study design, field data collection including human cases, vectors, and environmental parameters, data analysis, and epidemiological modeling. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. C. Tschudi
EMD 566b/HPM 566b, Critical Issues in Global Health The course focuses on critical challenges to the health of the poor in low- and middle-income countries and pays particular attention to how these health gaps can be addressed in low-cost and highly effective ways. The course covers the architecture, politics, and governance of global health; key trends in approaches to meeting the health needs of the poor in low- and middle-income countries; and how science and technology can be harnessed for this purpose. It examines the burden of disease and the determinants of this burden; covers the leading causes of illnesses, disability, and preventable death from communicable and noncommunicable diseases, with special attention to women and children; and focuses particular attention on key health systems issues and recent efforts to overcome them, especially in low-income settings. K. Khoshnood
EMD 567a, Tackling the Big Three: Malaria, TB, and HIV in Resource-Limited Settings Malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV account for more than five million deaths worldwide each year. This course provides a deep foundation for understanding these pathogens and explores the public health issues that surround these infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Emphasis is placed on issues in Africa, but contrasts for each disease are provided in the broader developing world. The course is divided into three sections, each focusing in depth on the individual infectious disease as well as discussions of interactions among the three diseases. The sections consist of three to four lectures each on the biology, individual consequences, and community/public health impact of each infectious disease. Discussion of ongoing, field-based research projects involving the diseases will be led by relevant faculty (research into practice). The course culminates with a critical discussion of major public health programmatic efforts to tackle these diseases, such as those of PEPFAR, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Global Fund, and the Stop TB Partnership. Prerequisite: EMD 518a. S. Parikh
EMD 580a/HPM 580a, Reforming Health Systems: Using Data to Improve Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Health systems in low- and middle-income countries are in constant flux in the face of myriad pressures and demands. Under such conditions, how can senior country officials and their donor partners make the best decisions to reform health systems to achieve Universal Health Coverage and improve the allocation of resources to maximize health gains, including on scale-up of programs to fight infectious diseases and maternal and child health problems? The course rounds out and reinforces the Yale M.P.H. experience in the Global Health concentration by providing students with a thorough understanding of health systems and health reforms—their components, dynamics, performance, and impacts—and by imparting the key tools and data sources needed to conceptualize and assess options related to health system reform and resource allocation, and to make coherent and effective policy and financing recommendations. Using these analytical frameworks and techniques, students analyze 6–8 case examples of major country reforms and of the scaling up of national disease control programs and prepare two short policy papers applying what they have learned to real-world health systems challenges. This course is the capstone for the Global Health concentration and is limited to second-year M.P.H. and Advanced Professional M.P.H. students. First-year M.P.H. students and undergraduates may petition the professor for an exception. R. Hecht
EMD 582b, Political Epidemiology Political epidemiology is the study of the impact of welfare regimes, political institutions, and specific policies on health and health equity. This course emphasizes the last among these—the effects of specific policies—on health outcomes in infectious diseases and other areas of human health and development. The course takes an issues- and methods-based approach, looking at how to evaluate the effects of political determinants of health (e.g., immigration, education, fiscal and environmental policies) through experimental and quasi-experimental methods, as well as various techniques associated with policy modeling (e.g., Markov models, systems dynamics, microsimulation, spatial models). Prerequisites: EPH 505a or a similar introductory course in statistics. STAT 541, MATH 241, or a similar introductory course in probability is recommended but not required, and a review of probability is offered in the first discussion section. G. Gonsalves
EMD 596b/LAW 30168/SBS 596b, Global Health and Justice Practicum This course fuses didactic and experiential learning on critical topics at the intersection of public health, rights, and justice in the twenty-first century. Students have the opportunity to explore analytic and practical frameworks that engage a diverse range of legal frameworks and processes that act as key mediators of health, including producing or responding to health disparities in the United States and worldwide. Readings and project approaches draw from legal, public health, historical, anthropological, and other fields to introduce students to the multiple lenses through which health issues can be tackled, and to build their competence to work with colleagues in other disciplines around such interventions. Because of the substantial time commitment involved, with both classroom and experiential learning, the Global Health and Justice Practicum is worth 2 course units. Enrollment limited to twelve. A. Kapczynski, A. Miller, G. Gonsalves
EMD 670a and b, Advanced Research Laboratories This course is required of all EMD Ph.D. students and is taken for three terms. The course offers experience in directed research and reading in selected research laboratories. The first two terms must be taken in the first year of the doctoral program, and the third term is normally taken in the summer after the first year. Open only to doctoral students. C. Tschudi
EMD 680b/MBIO 680b, Advanced Topics in Tropical Parasitic Diseases An introductory topic-based course in modern parasitology. For each topic there is an introductory lecture followed by a journal club-like discussion session of relevant papers selected from the literature. The course provides an introduction to basic biological concepts of parasitic eukaryotes causing diseases in humans. Topics include strategies used by parasitic eukaryotes to establish infections in the host and approaches to disease control, through either chemotherapy, vaccines, or genomics. In addition, emphasis is placed on evaluating the quality and limitation of scientific publications and developing skills in scientific communication. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. C. Tschudi
Health Policy and Management
HPM 502a/MGT 502a, Foundations of Accounting and Valuation Distinguishing value creation from redistribution is a key problem faced by any economy. Modern accounting practices are focused on this problem, and knowledge of them is extremely useful. Further, value creation activities in a modern society can become complex and abstract, and accounting practices have developed accordingly. While worthy of a lifetime of study, the purpose of this course is to enable the student to gain a foundation upon which a deep understanding of accounting can be built. One cannot have a sensible discussion of accounting as assessing value without having some idea of what value means and how to think about it. Therefore, this course begins by exploring the basic determinants of value and the techniques used to assess it: discounting cash flow and risk/return analysis. These techniques are based on the timing and statistical properties of cash flow. With this introduction, the course then turns to the more fundamental processes of generating cash flow by creating value through the production and delivery of goods or services and then converting that value into cash flows. The basic financial statements, balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements as well as the accounting mechanics with which they are built are introduced in this context. S. Garstka
HPM 514b, Health Politics, Governance, and Policy This course is designed to familiarize students with the various processes by which governmental health policy is made in the United States, and with current policy debates. One focus of the course is to understand the politics underlying the successes and failures of health policy making during the course of the twentieth century. This includes a discussion of the relevant governmental institutions, political actors, the major national programs that have been established, and how political actors use resources and set their strategies. M. Schlesinger
HPM 536b/MGT 668b, Narratives in Health Media on the Social Internet This course is a study of methods of communication that will equip students to engage with the public to share findings and insights, influence policy, identify problems, and maximize the effectiveness of their work. While the challenges in health policy demand ever more complex academic study, some 100 million Americans do not know, for example, that the Affordable Care Act is the same thing as Obamacare—much less what the law includes and means. The gap between those driving the conversation and those alienated and excluded from it is growing daily. This severely limits systemic improvements, and even rational discussion of improvement. Traditionally, public health experts have had a limited array of tools at their disposal to engage in public discourse, to reach people outside of their immediate circles of professional contacts, and to inform, hear from, react to, and influence the lives of many. This course is predicated on the idea that science cannot be conceived as a system by which knowledge emanates outward (much less downward) from academia, or it will cease to reach people and affect the world, only exacerbating distrust, division, and claims of elitism. Public health can only exist as an active process of communication between practitioners, researchers, and the public. Trust is built when science happens as a shared endeavor. J. Hamblin
HPM 542b, Health of Women and Children The focus of this course is women’s and children’s health and health care in the United States. Emerging health issues and related health policy are presented and discussed in terms of epidemiology, including racial/ethnic disparities and effects of poverty; utilization and financing of children’s health care; and existing programs and public policies that facilitate access to care. Data sources and data needs are identified. Topics may include history of MCH programs and policy, Medicaid and SCHIP, low birth weight and infant mortality, maternal mortality, reproductive health, breast and cervical cancer screening, pediatric oral health, pediatric asthma, childhood obesity, adolescent health care and teen pregnancy, children with special health care needs, childhood injuries and injury prevention. Students are expected to critically evaluate the public health implications of selected conditions and the effect of public policy on availability, accessibility, acceptability of services, and accountability in health care for women and children. M. A. Lee
HPM 545b, Health Disparities This seminar explores our nation’s striking inequities in morbidity, mortality, and injury (including by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic and immigration status, gender and gender identity, and geography), placing particular focus on the structural and social determinants of these inequities. Through readings drawn from multiple disciplines, it examines such topics as the impacts on health of poverty and inequality in income, wealth, and education; overt and implicit discrimination; residential segregation and concentrated poverty and their associated differential exposures to environmental hazards and health-promoting resources; differential access to, and quality of, health care; and the role of law as a determinant of, and tool to address, health inequities. A variety of community-based interventions to address health inequities are reviewed and critiqued, as are some of the ways law and policy are now being used as a tool to promote health justice. S. Geballe
[HPM 546a, Ethical Issues in Public Health This course is a study of ethical and social dimensions of public health policy and practice both within the United States and globally. Public health always has a normative as well as a scientific aspect. Social legitimacy and public trust are always essential to effective public health. Ideals of human rights, individual liberty, social justice and equality, community, solidarity, and the common good are central to public health policy and practice. At the same time, however, existing structures of power, coercion, discrimination, and stigma also shape those policies and practices.
Important frameworks of ethical and political theory are explained and compared, including utilitarianism, rights theory, theories of social and global justice, and democratic and elitist theories of governance. These frameworks are then applied to selected public health issues. Topics include global health justice, the ethical implications of studies of the social determinants of health, the cultural framing of health and illness, ethical issues in infectious disease control, and ethical conflicts arising in health promotion and behavior modification interventions in cases such as smoking and obesity. Environmental health and the global health effects of climate change are also explored. Not offered in 2018–2019]
HPM 555b, Health Policy or Health Care Management Practicum This course is one of the options available to HPM students to fulfill the M.P.H. applied practice experience requirement. The practicum is a project-based learning experience in which students work 8–10 hours each week in their placement. The Health Care Management Practicum (section 1) allows students to focus on current issues confronting a hospital department while working under the guidance of a departmental administrator. Students are required to attend the first week of class to enroll. The Health Policy Practicum (section 2) allows students to work on current state and/or local health policy issues while placed with state and/or local legislative or executive agency policy makers, or with senior staff at a nonprofit health policy or advocacy group. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. M. Klein (HCM), S. Geballe (HP)
HPM 556a, Advanced Health Policy Practicum This course is designed for students who wish to deepen their practice-based learning and develop additional research, communication, and advocacy skills through continuing work in a particular practicum placement and/or on a particular health policy topic. Students are placed with state and/or local legislative or executive agency policy makers, or with senior staff at nonprofit health policy or advocacy groups. Prerequisites: completion of the spring term Health Policy Practicum (HPM 555b) and permission of the instructor. S. Geballe
HPM 560b, Health Economics and U.S. Health Policy This course introduces students to the organization and operation of the American health care system. The course examines systems of health care delivery and finance and recent trends in their organization, including the growth of managed care. The course seeks to provide students with an understanding of the existing structure of the system and with conceptual frameworks. Z. Cooper
HPM 566b/EMD 566b, Critical Issues in Global Health The course focuses on critical challenges to the health of the poor in low- and middle-income countries and pays particular attention to how these health gaps can be addressed in low-cost and highly effective ways. The course covers the architecture, politics, and governance of global health; key trends in approaches to meeting the health needs of the poor in low- and middle-income countries; and how science and technology can be harnessed for this purpose. It examines the burden of disease and the determinants of this burden; covers the leading causes of illnesses, disability, and preventable death from communicable and noncommunicable diseases, with special attention to women and children; and focuses particular attention on key health systems issues and recent efforts to overcome them, especially in low-income settings. K. Khoshnood
HPM 570a, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Decision-Making This course introduces students to the methods of decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis in health-related technology assessment, resource allocation, and clinical decision-making. The course aims to develop technical competence in the methods used; practical skills in applying these tools to case-based studies of medical decisions and public health choices; and an appreciation of the uses and limitations of these methods at the levels of national policy, health care organizations, and individual patient care. A.D. Paltiel
HPM 573b, Advanced Topics in Modeling Health Care Decisions This course develops students’ technical competencies in managerial decision-making using spreadsheet simulation models. The course aims to enhance skills in developing, implementing, and analyzing spreadsheet models to inform decisions concerning health care resource allocation, technology assessment, and clinical decision-making. Students also acquire skills in conducting, presenting, and critically evaluating modeling studies in health care. The course consists of lectures, in-class labs, practical exercises, and a final project through which students gain experience in developing and evaluating simulation models to guide health care decisions. R. Yaesoubi
[HPM 575b/GLBL 821b, Making Policy Choices to Improve Health in Low Income Settings Using data and customized analytical techniques, students explore ways to formulate and assess policy and program options that address the most pressing health/nutrition/population (HNP) challenges in developing countries. The course examines a series of eight to ten new analytical frameworks and techniques that have been developed and applied over the past five years to major HNP challenges in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with important impacts on the ground. Students contribute to shaping the agenda for further development of innovative methods for global health policy research and advisory services, and pursue their own mini-project on an HNP issue of their choosing. Prerequisite: introductory economics or permission of the instructor. Not offered in 2018–2019]
HPM 576b, Comparative Health Care Systems This course examines the basic structure of health care systems across countries, with a focus on how system design can impact the provision of care. Health care systems evolve within distinct cultures; consequently, these systems vary substantially in the ways they finance, organize, and deliver care. In spite of these differences, the aims of health care systems worldwide are often quite similar: chiefly, to facilitate access to high-quality care that improves health at a reasonable cost. Over the course of the term we identify themes in how countries organize their health care systems, examine the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to the payment and delivery of health care, and explore specific examples of ongoing efforts to reform health systems. Recurring concepts include the role of public and private systems in financing and delivering health care, the impact of the local environment on the structure of health care systems, and the effect of health system design on patient and provider behavior. C. Ndumele
HPM 580a/EMD 580a, Reforming Health Systems: Using Data to Improve Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Health systems in low- and middle-income countries are in constant flux in the face of myriad pressures and demands. Under such conditions, how can senior country officials and their donor partners make the best decisions to reform health systems to achieve Universal Health Coverage and improve the allocation of resources to maximize health gains, including on scale-up of programs to fight infectious diseases and maternal and child health problems? The course rounds out and reinforces the Yale M.P.H. experience in the Global Health concentration by providing students with a thorough understanding of health systems and health reforms—their components, dynamics, performance, and impacts—and by imparting the key tools and data sources needed to conceptualize and assess options related to health system reform and resource allocation, and to make coherent and effective policy and financing recommendations. Using these analytical frameworks and techniques, students analyze 6–8 case examples of major country reforms and of the scaling up of national disease control programs and prepare two short policy papers applying what they have learned to real-world health systems challenges. This course is the capstone for the Global Health concentration and is limited to second-year M.P.H. and Advanced Professional M.P.H. students. First-year M.P.H. students and undergraduates may petition the professor for an exception. R. Hecht
HPM 583b, Methods in Health Services Research This course introduces students to both quantitative and qualitative methods for research in health services. Topics include research objectives and hypotheses formulation, study design, sampling techniques, measurement, data analysis, results presentation, and discussion. Students synthesize these skills in the final paper. Prerequisite: EPH 505a. X. Chen
HPM 586a, Microeconomics for Health Policy and Health Management This course introduces students to microeconomics, with an emphasis on topics of particular relevance to the health care sector. Attention is paid to issues of equity and distribution, uncertainty and attitudes toward risk, and alternatives to price competition. This course is designed for students with minimal previous exposure to economics. A. Friedman
HPM 587a, Advanced Health Economics This course applies the principles learned in Microeconomics for Health Policy and Health Management (HPM 586) to the health of individuals, to health care institutions and markets, as well as to health care policy. The economic aspects of health behaviors, hospital markets, cost-benefit analysis, regulation, and the market for physician services are covered. Prerequisite: microeconomics or permission of the instructor. S. Busch
HPM 588a, Public Health Law This course focuses on the law as it impacts the health of populations, focusing on the legal powers and duties of federal, state, and local governments to equitably promote and protect the health of their communities, as well as the constitutional constraints on those powers to protect individual rights. It is a course designed specifically for students with no legal training, introducing students to the multiple ways the law acts as a structural and social determinant of health and health inequities as well as how the law can be used as a tool to promote health in individuals and health justice among populations. Tools examined include the use of direct and indirect regulation to alter the information and built environments, control communicable disease, and reduce chronic disease and injury; governments’ “power of the purse”—to tax and spend—to fund public health programs and services, and influence individual and corporate behavior; and the role of the courts in interpreting law and resolving disputes among branches and levels of government as well as among individuals, businesses, and government. Students gain some basic proficiency in finding and interpreting primary legal sources, applying the law to public health problems, and identifying ways to most effectively influence the legislative, administrative, and judicial lawmaking processes. Prerequisite: HPM 514b or permission of the instructor. S. Geballe
[HPM 589a, Leadership and Public Health This course examines in depth several key conceptual frameworks related to leadership, with application to a variety of public health and medical topics. The class focuses on four interrelated challenges: (1) working across boundaries defined by roles, power, and race; (2) managing common resources to maximize social welfare; (3) anticipating and responding to change at social, organizational, and individual levels; and (4) understanding paradoxes in leadership in a complex world. Assignments include active participation and attendance in class sessions; a midterm reflection paper; a group experience resulting in a short paper; and a final paper that uses concepts developed in the class and readings to analyze the leadership landscape associated with a public health or medical problem chosen by the student, and to determine whether the leadership is addressing the problem effectively and why. Not offered in 2018–2019]
HPM 590b/ECON 461b, Economics, Addiction, and Policy This course aims to enable students to understand and then develop solutions to the public health problems of addictions in the United States and globally. The two problems addressed this year are (1) the opioid crisis; and (2) harmful health behaviors and habits, e.g., use of tobacco, overeating, and alcohol abuse. The first part of the course builds the knowledge base about these problems. In the second part, students actively participate in debates, panels, etc., and in developing and scaling (in theory) solutions. The course focuses on establishing the causes of and then solutions to these behaviors and problems. It covers facts and findings from the literature; analytic methods used in the literature to establish causality and evidence on effectiveness of alternative solutions; rational and behavioral economic models of behaviors; methods to evaluate social impact; and how to scale through government policies, social entrepreneurship, start-ups, and collaborations with foundations or businesses. Solutions are based on analyses of the problems, evidence on the effectiveness of related or parallel solutions, and efforts to innovate and perhaps even “disrupt.” Students must analyze the problem and propose solutions, which could be—but do not have to be—pursued; that is, the proposals can be on paper only, but nonetheless there must be a plan for scaling the project or policy to have important social impacts, at least in theory. Weekly assignments and a final project are required. J. Sindelar
[HPM 592a/GLBL 322a/HLTH 450a/PLSC 121a, Strategic Thinking in Global Health This course defines and applies a set of core principles regarding development and implementation of grand strategy and problem solving in global health. Students come to understand and apply principles of grand strategy and strategic problem solving, which are taught at both a conceptual and a practical level as applied to common problems in global health. Students develop expertise in political and policy analysis as well as organizational theory and leadership skills that are central to addressing global health issues in low- and middle-income countries. Not offered in 2018–2019]
HPM 595a/LAW 20616, Food and Drug Administration Law The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the premier consumer protection agency in the United States, with control over the availability and public discourse about potentially lifesaving therapeutics, foods, supplements, and related consumer products. Its authority has been built in response to public health crises and is constantly under scrutiny from all sides of the political spectrum. The class reviews the history of the FDA’s regulation over the health care products market, the noteworthy legislation that has shaped its oversight in this area, Supreme Court and other cases that have impacted its authority, and an introduction to key current controversies related to the FDA that affect health care delivery. (This course does not cover food law.) The enduring theme is how the FDA balances its vital public safety role against countervailing forces of personal autonomy and the rights or interests of consumers, patients, physicians, and corporations. Each class is organized around interactive discussion introducing students to the material, including hypothetical cases that require students to apply the day’s lessons and themes in determining legal and policy solutions. Students with high-quality papers will be given specific guidance in submitting them for publication in the peer-reviewed medical/public health/policy literature. Paper of 2,500–4,000 words is required. Enrollment limited to twenty. A.S. Kesselheim
HPM 597b, Capstone Course in Health Policy This course is designed as the capstone educational experience for students concentrating in health policy. It integrates previous course work in health policy and public health and facilitates students’ transition from the academic setting into the world of professional policy analysis. Students practice different approaches to policy formulation, policy analysis, and policy implementation. As part of their course assignments, students use various strategies to frame policy debates to promote desired outcomes. There is extensive work on improving oral and written presentation skills pertinent to current, applied policy dilemmas. Prerequisite: EPH 510a or equivalent. M. Schlesinger
HPM 600a,b, Independent Study or Directed Readings Independent study or directed readings on a specific research topic agreed upon by faculty and student. By arrangement with faculty.
HPM 601b/F&ES 862b/PSYC 601b, The Science of Science Communication The simple dissemination of valid scientific knowledge does not guarantee it will be recognized by non-experts to whom it is of consequence. The science of science communication is an emerging, multidisciplinary field that investigates the processes that enable ordinary citizens to form beliefs consistent with the best available scientific evidence, the conditions that impede the formation of such beliefs, and the strategies that can be employed to avoid or ameliorate such conditions. This course surveys, and makes a modest attempt to systematize, the growing body of work in this area. Special attention is paid to identifying the distinctive communication dynamics of the diverse contexts in which non-experts engage scientific information, including electoral politics, governmental policy making, and personal health decision-making. D. Kahan
HPM 610b, Applied Area Readings Required of HPM Ph.D. students, in preparation for qualifying exams. Readings arranged with specific faculty in related research area. By arrangement with faculty.
HPM 611a/MGT 611a/ENAS 649a, Policy Modeling How can one evaluate the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs? How many drug treatment slots are required to provide treatment on demand? Does capital punishment deter homicide? And what do the above questions have in common? The answer to the last query is simple: these problems and more are considered in Policy Modeling. Building on earlier course work in quantitative analysis and statistics, the course provides an operational framework for exploring the costs and benefits of public policy decisions. The techniques employed include “back of the envelope” probabilistic models, Markov processes, queuing theory, and linear/integer programming. With an eye toward making better decisions, these techniques are applied to a number of important policy problems. In addition to lectures, assigned articles and texts, and short problem sets, students are responsible for completing a take-home midterm exam and a number of cases. In some instances, it will be possible to take a real problem from formulation to solution, and compare your own analysis to what actually happened. Prerequisite: a demonstrated proficiency in quantitative methods. E. Kaplan
HPM 617a,b, Colloquium in Health Services Research This seminar focuses on the analysis of current issues in health policy and on state-of-the-art methodological issues in health services research. The format includes guest speakers and presentations of ongoing research projects by YSPH and other faculty and graduate students. Students participate in critical discussions of the issues that arise in both types of sessions. Prerequisite: doctoral status or permission of the instructor. Z. Cooper
HPM 620a/b, Readings in Health Services Research In-depth readings, discussion, and analysis of topics specific to health policy research. Optional for Ph.D. students choosing this area of depth. By arrangement with faculty.
HPM 621a/MGT 621a, Managing Social Enterprise Organizations This course provides the opportunity to examine, through a set of case studies, key issues related to managing social enterprise organizations. Following initial content reviewing perspectives on the trend of social enterprise, topics covered include industry analysis for organizations with a double or triple bottom line, stakeholder analysis, organizational design (choosing the right organizational legal form), the challenge of integrating interdisciplinary human resources, using metrics for performance management, calculating an SROI (social return on investment), raising capital at different stages of the organizational life cycle, scaling a social innovation/product, and protecting social mission during exits. K. Cooney
HPM 630b, Advanced Readings in Health Services Research In-depth readings, discussion, and analysis of topics specific to health services research. Optional for Ph.D. students choosing this area of depth. By arrangement with faculty.
HPM 697a, Health Policy Leadership Seminar This seminar introduces students to innovative health policy leaders working in federal, state, and local government, nonprofit policy/advocacy organizations, business, and/or health policy-oriented foundations. The speakers present on a variety of current health policy issues and also reflect on their own career paths. The seminar, required of Health Policy students, meets biweekly at the end of the day with a light dinner served. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. S. Geballe
HPM 698b/MGT 698b, Health Care Policy, Finance, and Economics This course teaches students the critical skills in analyzing and working within the health care industry. The first part of the course focuses on the economic and financial drivers of the domestic health care system, including private and public financing and delivery models. In the latter part of the course, students learn about current issues of importance to this $3 trillion industry. The course is part didactic/part seminar in style, with team projects and presentations as a major component of the grade. Open to M.P.H. students in Health Care Management, SOM students, and others with permission of the instructor. H. Forman
HPM 699a,b/MGT 699a,b, Colloquium in Health Care Leadership This seminar series, meeting on the medical school campus, introduces the students to leading figures in health care: public sector, private sector, and third sector executives and leaders discuss their career paths and current insights into the evolution and revolution in health care delivery and services. The course provides credit in the spring term for a full year of attendance. Only students who have been attending fall sessions can enroll in the spring. H. Forman
HPM 995b/MGT 995b, Sustainable Innovations in Health Care This course explores the practical issues of managing ongoing innovation in the health care industry through the lens of analyzing how executives meet the need for the continuous advancements in quality, technology, and efficiency in the development, marketing, and sales of pharmaceutical products, health technology, and patient service delivery. The course combines case discussion, lectures, seminar-style interactions, and guest executive speakers. Students are expected to actively participate in classroom discussions and prepare for each class by completing assigned readings and discussion questions. One group assignment requires students to work in small teams and prepare a short presentation analyzing innovation at a public company or other health care organization. G. Licholai
Social and Behavioral Sciences
SBS 505c, Social Foundations of Health This intensive seven-week summer course provides students with an introduction to social determinants of health that influence patterns of health and health care delivery, behaviors, and mortality. The focus is on the individual, interpersonal, community, and societal influences that must be taken into consideration when public health initiatives are developed and implemented. Not open to students in the traditional two-year M.P.H. program. Y. Ransome
SBS 525a and b, Seminar in Social and Behavioral Sciences This seminar is conducted once a month and focuses on speakers and topics of particular relevance to SBS students. Students are introduced to research activities of the department’s faculty members, with regular presentations by invited researchers and community leaders. The seminar is required of first-year SBS students. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. D. Keene
SBS 531a/PSYC 664a, Health and Aging This course explores the ways psychosocial and biological factors influence aging health. Topics include interventions to improve mental and physical health; effects of ageism on health; racial and gender health disparities in later life; and how health policy can best adapt to the growing aging population. Students have the opportunity to engage in discussions and to develop a research proposal on a topic of interest. B. Levy
SBS 537b, Social and Interpersonal Influences on Health Social relationships, such as friends, family, romantic partners, neighbors, and coworkers, are an important part of our lives. They are the targets of our behaviors, for example, when we help, love, fight, and discriminate against others. They are the basis of our feelings of status and self-esteem and why we experience the majority of our emotions. Importantly, social relationships have strong influences on our mental and physical health. The purpose of this class is to learn about different ways of conceiving of our social environment, and how these social factors can contribute to our mental and physical health. We critically review the literature that examines the associations between social factors and mental and physical health. We address several social concepts, and in each case discuss how they “get under the skin” to influence health. J. Monin
SBS 541b, Community Health Program Evaluation This course develops students’ skills in designing program evaluations for public health programs, including nongovernmental and governmental agencies in the United States and abroad. Students learn about different types of summative and formative evaluation models and tools for assessment. The course content is based on an ecological framework, principles of public health ethics, a philosophy of problem-based learning, and critiques of evaluation case studies. Students write evaluation plans for a specific existing public health program. Students may also work as a team with a local community health agency reviewing their evaluation plans and providing guidance on developing a program evaluation plan for one of the agency’s public health programs. K. Duffany
SBS 568b, Public Health Communication This course is an introduction to the theory, design, and implementation of public health communication. All students work as groups on specific projects for various nonprofit and governmental agencies in the New Haven area, helping the organizations solve their real-world communication needs. To the extent possible, students choose the groups and projects they wish to work with. In class, students learn the theories of public health communication as well as specific production techniques such as podcasts, videos, posters, slogans, press releases, and social media. The class time is a highly interactive seminar. The goal is to enhance students’ abilities in both communication of science-based public health information in nontechnical language to the general public and response to crises such as disease outbreaks. R. Bazell
SBS 570b, LGBT Population Health Sexual and gender minority individuals (e.g., those who identify as LGBT) represent a key health disparity population in the United States and worldwide, but high-quality evidence of this problem has historically been slow to accumulate. This course engages students in critically examining today’s rapidly expanding empirical knowledge regarding sexual and gender minority health by considering challenges to, and opportunities for, conducting this research with methodological rigor. Students consider social and ecological influences on sexual and gender minority health, including migration, community, and neighborhood influences. Social institutions, including religion, school, family, and close relationships, are examined as sources of both stress and support. Given the relevance of individual and collective identity and stress as mechanisms through which stigma impacts sexual and gender minority health, the empirical platform of the course is complemented by intersectionality theory, critical postmodern work on identity fluidity and multiplicity across the life course, and minority stress conceptualizations of health. Students apply lessons learned in the course to evaluating and developing policy and health care interventions for this increasingly visible segment of the global population. J. Pachankis
SBS 573a, Social and Cultural Factors in Mental Health and Illness This course provides an introduction to mental health and illness with a focus on the complex interplay between risk and protective factors and social and cultural influences on mental health status. We examine the role of social and cultural factors in the etiology, course, and treatment of substance misuse; depressive, anxiety, and psychotic disorders; and some of the severe behavioral disorders of childhood. The social consequences of mental illness such as stigma, isolation, and barriers to care are explored, and their impact on access to care and recovery considered. The effectiveness of the current system of services and the role of public health and public health professionals in mental health promotion are discussed. M. Smith
SBS 574b, Developing a Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Intervention The primary objective of the course is to gain experience in intervention research by developing a health promotion and disease prevention intervention. Students choose a health problem (e.g., physical inactivity, smoking, HIV risk) and develop an intervention focused on favorably changing the determinants and behaviors that influence the health problem. The course emphasizes transferring concepts from the abstract to the concrete. Students develop an intervention manual consisting of actual intervention materials and methods that specifically outline how the intervention will be designed and implemented. T. Kershaw
SBS 580b, Qualitative Research Methods in Public Health This is a course about doing qualitative social research in public health. The course, which has both theoretical and practical components, introduces students to various epistemological, philosophical, and ethical considerations that are involved with qualitative research methods and the practice of social science research more generally. Additionally, students gain hands-on experience with some of the strategies and techniques that are needed to conduct qualitative research. D. Keene
SBS 581a, Stigma and Health This course engages students in conceptualizing stigma as a fundamental cause of adverse health. After reviewing conceptual models of stigma, students examine the multiple mechanisms—both structural and individual—through which stigma compromises the health of a large proportion of U.S. and global populations. Given the relevance of identity and stress to the study of stigma and health, the empirical platform of the course is complemented by considering the relevance of conceptual models of identity, intersectionality, and minority stress. The course reviews social/behavioral and epidemiological methods for studying stigma. Students compare individual- and structural-level interventions to reduce both stigma at its source and its downstream impact on individual health. Class content is organized around themes that cut across all stigmatized conditions and identities. However, students devote course assignments to individual stigmas of their choice. Therefore, students can expect to explain stigma as a predicament that affects nearly all individuals at some point in the life course while developing expertise in one or two stigmas that are particularly relevant to their interests. K. Wang
SBS 583a, Sexual and Reproductive Health In this course students critically examine current issues, challenges, and strategies to improve sexual and reproductive health in the United States as well as in a global context. Topics include family planning, STIs/HIV and other infections, infertility and reproductive technologies, maternal mortality and morbidity, reproductive cancers, gender, and social/political/economic factors influencing reproductive health. Interdisciplinary learning is encouraged through active participation in lectures and discussions. The course is designed to prepare students to take on meaningful scholarly, community-based, programmatic, or policy work in the field. S. Cunningham
SBS 585a/GLBL 529a/LAW 20568, Sexuality, Gender, Health, and Human Rights The course explores the application of human rights perspectives and practices to issues in regard to sexuality and health. It addresses the necessity—and complexity—of adding nuanced rights perspectives to programming and advocacy on sexual health. Through reading, interactive discussion, paper presentation, and occasional outside speakers, students learn the tools and implications of applying rights to a range of sexuality and health-related topics. The overall goal is twofold: to engage students in the world of global sexual health and rights policy making as a field of social justice and public health action; and to introduce them to conceptual tools that can inform advocacy and policy formation and evaluation. A. Miller
SBS 594a, Maternal-Child Public Health Nutrition This course examines how nutrition knowledge gets translated into evidence-informed maternal-child food and nutrition programs and policies. Using multisectorial and interdisciplinary case-study examples, the course highlights (1) socioeconomic, cultural, public health, and biomedical forces that determine maternal-child nutrition well-being; and (2) how this understanding can help shape effective programs and policies capable of improving food and nutrition security of women and children. Topics include maternal-child nutrition programs, food assistance and conditional cash-transfer programs, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Prerequisites: EPH 508a and BIS 505b, or permission of the instructor. R. Pérez-Escamilla
SBS 596b/EMD 596b/LAW 30168, Global Health and Justice Practicum This course fuses didactic and experiential learning on critical topics at the intersection of public health, rights, and justice in the twenty-first century. Students have the opportunity to explore analytic and practical frameworks that engage a diverse range of legal frameworks and processes that act as key mediators of health, including producing or responding to health disparities in the United States and worldwide. Readings and project approaches draw from legal, public health, historical, anthropological, and other fields to introduce students to the multiple lenses through which health issues can be tackled, and to build their competence to work with colleagues in other disciplines around such interventions. Because of the substantial time commitment involved, with both classroom and experiential learning, the Global Health and Justice Practicum is worth 2 course units. Enrollment limited to twelve. A. Kapczynski, A. Miller, G. Gonsalves
SBS 600a,b, Independent Study or Directed Readings Independent study or directed readings on a specific research topic agreed upon by faculty and student. By arrangement with faculty.
SBS 610b, Applied Area Readings for Qualifying Exams Required of CDE Ph.D. students, in preparation for qualifying exams. Readings arranged with specific faculty in related research area. By arrangement with faculty.
SBS 670a,b, Advanced Field Methods in Public Health The course offers direct experience in field methods in social and behavioral sciences for doctoral students and advanced M.P.H. students. Students are expected to actively participate as part of a research team (8–10 hours per week) doing field research in some aspect of social and behavioral sciences. It is expected that their progress will be directly supervised by the principal investigator of the research project. This course can be taken for one or two terms and may be taken for credit. Prerequisite: arrangement with a faculty member must be made in advance of registration. T. Kershaw
SBS 676b, Questionnaire Development This course is designed to direct students through the process of questionnaire selection and development for use in health research. Questionnaires and surveys are used extensively in medical, epidemiological, and public health research. The specific questionnaire utilized has great potential to affect research conclusions. Students learn to critically evaluate existing measures and how to construct questionnaires for use in health research. Topics include constructs and operational definitions, writing and evaluating questionnaire items, item scaling, domain sampling, item wording and readability, test bias, and item weighting and scoring. Students learn how to evaluate psychometric indicators (e.g., internal consistency, reliability, and validity coefficients). Students are required to construct a questionnaire and are guided through all phases of questionnaire development, including item generation, scaling decisions, survey design, pilot testing, data collection, reliability analysis, and calculation of validity coefficients. The practical learning goal is to generate a publication-level questionnaire to evaluate a unique exposure history or health-related construct. By course end, students are able to critically evaluate existing measures and have the skills necessary to develop psychometrically valid tools for research. Prerequisites: EPH 508a and BIS 505b (may be taken concurrently). M. White
SBS 699b, Advanced Topics in Social and Behavioral Sciences This course provides an in-depth examination of key areas in the social and behavioral sciences. For each topic, we explore a general overview of the area and noted gaps in the literature, the primary theories driving research in the area, common methods and analytic techniques, and recent research examples. Students explore topics in current and emerging areas of social and behavioral sciences including topics focusing on health care, maternal-child health, reproductive health, mental health, social determinants of health, stigma, obesity, and aging. SBS faculty