Courses Taught by Institute Faculty, 2019–2020

See the bulletins of the School of Music and the Divinity School for full course listings and degree requirements. Courses listed here may be cross-listed in other schools or departments. Information is current as of July 1, 2019. An updated list is available online at http://ism.yale.edu.

The letter “a” following the course number denotes the fall term; the letter “b” denotes the spring term.

Courses fulfilling the distribution requirements for Institute students pursuing the M.Div. are indicated with a letter representing the subject area: W (Worship), M (Music), and/or A (Visual Arts or Literature). In the School of Music, courses designated NP are nonperformance courses. Courses designated P/F will be graded on a Pass/Fail basis. See the Schools’ respective bulletins for full explanation.

Music Courses

MUS 506a–b, 606a–b, Lyric Diction for Singers 2 credits per term. A language course designed specifically for the needs of singers. Intensive work on pronunciation, grammar, and literature throughout the term. French, German, English, Italian, Russian, and Latin are offered in alternating terms. Required. Faculty

MUS 509a–b, 609a–b, 709a–b, Art Song Coaching for Singers 1 credit per term. Individual private coaching in the art song repertoire, in preparation for required recitals. Students are coached on such elements of musical style as phrasing, rubato, and articulation, and in English, French, Italian, and German. Students are expected to bring their recital accompaniments to coaching sessions as their recital times approach. Tomoko Nakayama

MUS 511b, Music before 1750 4 credits. NP. Group B. An overview of music before 1750 within its cultural and social contexts. The goal of the course is knowledge of the repertoire representing the major styles, genres, and composers of the period. Course requirements include six short essays, a final research project, and a final exam. Markus Rathey

MUS 515a,b, Improvisation at the Organ I 2 credits. This course in beginning organ improvisation explores a variety of harmonization techniques, with a strong focus on formal structure (binary and ternary forms, rondo, song form). Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to seven minutes on a submitted theme. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 518b/REL 685b, In the Face of Death: Worship, Music, Art 4 credits. NP. Group C. Given the breadth of the subject matter, this course attends to a broad spectrum of themes related to ritual, music, and art “in the face of death,” but has to do so quite selectively. Readings of historical sources themselves (textual and nontextual), scholarly research into past practices surrounding dying and death, and analysis of contemporary practices form the core materials. The course is shaped by three foci of inquiry in the realm of ritual, music, and art as they relate to (1) those who have died, (2) those who are dying, i.e., facing imminent death, and (3) the confrontation with one’s own finitude, mortality, and dying. The Christian tradition holds rich resources and insights for all three of these subject matters. The course creates space for a nuanced reflection on this tradition, as both backdrop and resource for contemporary engagement. Teresa Berger, Markus Rathey

MUS 519a–b, 619a–b, 719a–b, Colloquium 1 credit per term. NP. P/F. Participation in seminars led by faculty and guest lecturers on topics concerning theology, music, worship, and related arts. Required of all Institute of Sacred Music students. Martin Jean

MUS 522a–b, 622a–b, 722a–b, Acting for Singers 1 credit per term. Designed to address the specialized needs of the singing actor. Studies include technique in character analysis, together with studies in poetry as it applies to art song literature. Class work is extended in regular private coaching. ISM students are required to take two terms in their second year. Ethan Heard (ISM), Christopher Murrah

MUS 531a–b, 631a–b, Repertory Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A reading chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. The chorus reads, studies, and sings a wide sampling of choral literature. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 532a–b, 632a–b, Repertory Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Repertory Chorus, preparing and conducting a portion of a public concert each term. Open only to choral conducting majors. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 535a–b, 635a–b, Recital Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. It serves as the choral ensemble for four to five degree recitals per year. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 536a–b, 636a–b, Recital Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Second- and third-year students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Recital Chorus, preparing and conducting their degree recitals. Open to choral conducting majors only. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 540a–b, 640a–b, 740a–b, 840a–b, Individual Instruction in the Major 4 credits per term. Individual instruction of one hour per week throughout the academic year, for majors in performance, conducting, and composition. Faculty

MUS 544a–b, 644a–b, 744a–b, Seminar in the Major 2 credits per term. An examination of a wide range of problems relating to the area of the major. Specific requirements may differ by department. At the discretion of each department, seminar requirements can be met partially through off-campus field trips and/or off-campus fieldwork, e.g., performance or teaching. Required of all School of Music students except pianists who take 533, 633, 733. Faculty

MUS 546a–b, 646a–b, 746a–b, Yale Camerata 2 credits per term. Open to all members of the University community by audition, the Yale Camerata presents several performances throughout the year that explore choral literature from all musical periods. Members of the ensemble should have previous choral experience and be willing to devote time to the preparation of music commensurate with the Camerata’s vigorous rehearsal and concert schedule. Marguerite Brooks

MUS 571a–b, 671a–b, 771a–b, Yale Schola Cantorum 1 credit per term. Specialist chamber choir for the development of advanced ensemble skills and expertise in demanding solo roles (in music before 1750 and from the last one hundred years). Enrollment required for voice majors enrolled through the Institute of Sacred Music. David Hill

MUS 579b, Responses to War in the Choral Genre 4 credits. NP. Group B. This course examines how composers of choral music have responded to the subject of war and how they have used the unique nature of the choral instrument and the specific conventions of the repertoire to comment on war’s devastating impact. Through listening, reading, analysis, and a final written project, we explore a wide range of such pieces, including sixteenth-century chansons, masses of Haydn and Beethoven, and more recent works by such composers as Bliss, Vaughan Williams, Delius, Tippett, Hindemith, Britten, and Adams. Ultimately, we try to see what common threads connect these works, and what their differences say about changing musical values and perceptions of war from one generation to another. Permission of the instructor required. Jeffrey Douma

MUS 594a–b, Vocal Chamber Music 1 credit. This performance-based class requires a high level of individual participation each week. Grades are based on participation in and preparation for class, and two performances of the repertoire learned. Attendance is mandatory. Occasional weekend sessions and extra rehearsals during production weeks can be expected. Students are expected to learn quickly and must be prepared to tackle a sizeable amount of repertoire. Bernarda Fink [F], James Taylor [Sp]

MUS 595a–b, 695b, Performance Practice for Singers 2 credits per term. Fall term: An introduction to the major issues of historically informed performance, including notation, use of modern editions, and performance styles. Spring term: Advanced exploration of notation, performance styles, and ornamentation in specific repertoire. Open to conductors and instrumentalists with permission of the instructor. Jeffrey Grossman

MUS 615a,b, Improvisation at the Organ II 2 credits. This course explores modal improvisation, focusing on the composition techniques of Charles Tournemire and Olivier Messiaen. Students learn to improvise five-movement chant-based suites (Introit-Offertoire-Elevation-Communion-Pièce Terminale), versets, and a variety of free works using late-twentieth-century language. Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to seven minutes on a submitted theme. Prerequisite: MUS 515. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 617a/REL 643a, Music and Theology in the Sixteenth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. The Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century was a “media event.” The invention of letterpress printing, the partisanship of famous artists like Dürer and Cranach, and—not least—the support of many musicians and composers were responsible for the spreading of the thoughts of Reformation. But while Luther gave an important place to music, Zwingli and Calvin were much more skeptical. Music, especially sacred music, constituted a problem because it was tightly connected with Catholic liturgical and aesthetic traditions. Reformers had to think about the place music could have in worship and about the function of music in secular life. Markus Rathey

MUS 623a,b, Early Music Coaching for Singers 1 credit. Individual private coaching in early repertoire, focusing on historically informed performance practice, in preparation for required recitals and concerts. Students are coached on such elements of musical style as ornamentation, phrasing, rubato, articulation, and rhetoric, and in English, French, Italian, German, Latin, and Spanish diction. Students are expected to bring recital and concert repertoire to coaching sessions as performance times approach. Jeffrey Grossman

MUS 656a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills I 2 credits. In this course, students gain a deeper understanding of and appreciation for musical genres, both those familiar to them and those different from their own, and learn basic techniques for their application in church service playing. Students learn to play hymns, congregational songs, service music, and anthems from a variety of sources, including music from the liturgical and free church traditions, including the Black Church experience. Hymn playing, with an emphasis on methods of encouraging congregational singing, is the principal focus of the organ instruction, but there is also instruction in chant and anthem accompaniment, including adapting a piano reduction to the organ. In the gospel style, beginning with the piano, students are encouraged to play by ear, using their aural skills in learning gospel music. This training extends to the organ, in the form of improvised introductions and varied accompaniments to hymns of all types. We seek to accomplish these goals by active participation and discussion in class. When not actually playing in class, students are encouraged to sing to the accompaniment of the person at the keyboard, to further their experience of singing with accompaniment, and to give practical encouragement to the person playing. Prerequisite: graduate-level organ and piano proficiency. Walden Moore

MUS 657a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills II 2 credits. The subject matter is the same as for MUS 656, but some variety is offered in the syllabus on a two-year cycle to allow second-year students to take the course without duplicating all of the means by which the playing techniques are taught. Walden Moore

MUS 672a/REL 912a, Sacred Music: Unity and Diversity 4 credits. NP. Group C. What is “sacred music”? The answer depends on the individual perspective, denominational affiliation, and also personal musical taste. The course takes an ethnographic approach and explores the use, understanding, and function of sacred music in different local congregations in New Haven. Work in the classroom provides the theoretical and methodological basis, while students each visit one local congregation from a denomination different from their own over several weeks. Students observe the musical practices and engage with members of the clergy and community about “the sacred in music” and the function of music in worship and devotional life. A particular focus of the course is on music that does not represent the Western musical canon. Students conduct and evaluate their research during the term and present their results in a small symposium at the end of the term. Markus Rathey

[MUS 715a,b, Improvisation at the Organ III 2 credits. This course explores the improvisation of full organ symphony in four movements, Tryptique (Rondo-Aria-Theme/variations), improvisation on visual images, text-based improvisation, and silent film. Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to ten minutes on a submitted theme. Prerequisite: MUS 615. Jeffrey Brillhart. Not offered in 2019–2020]

[MUS 815a,b, Improvisation at the Organ IV 2 credits. This course explores the improvisation of contrapuntal forms including partimento fugue, stylus fantasticus, fugue d’école, and choral preludes. Prerequisite: MUS 715. Jeffrey Brillhart. Not offered in 2019–2020]

Divinity Courses

Courses are 3 credits unless otherwise indicated.

REL 3910a–b, Colloquium ½ credit per term. P/F. Participation in seminars led by faculty and guest lecturers on topics concerning theology, music, worship, and related arts. Required of all Institute of Sacred Music students. Martin Jean

REL 601b, Eastern Orthodox Worship and Thought This course is intended to be an introduction to the Eastern Orthodox (Chalcedonian) tradition by examining the history and theology of its worship. The course proceeds chronologically, beginning in the early centuries of Christianity and tracing the development of Orthodox liturgy and theological reflection up to the present day. Along the way, we consider various aspects of Orthodox worship: music, iconography, female bodies, dogmatic developments, etc. The course has two main assignments. First, each student writes and presents in class a book review of a classic text of modern Orthodox theology or modern scholarly analysis of an aspect of Orthodox worship. Second, all students write a 10–12-page research paper. In the last two weeks of the class, students present their work to the class, conference style. (W) Mark Roosien

REL 610a, Worship, Cosmos, Creation This course explores the manifold intersections between practices of Christian worship and understandings of creation and cosmos. The specific intersections highlighted during the term include biblical, historical, visual, and musical materials as well as contemporary theological and pastoral reflections on practices of worship. The course seeks to engage the many voices of a “green” Christian faith that have emerged among scholars and practitioners of worship during a time of unprecedented attention to ecological and cosmological concerns. (W) Teresa Berger

REL 643a/MUS 617a, Music and Theology in the Sixteenth Century The Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century was a “media event.” The invention of letterpress printing, the partisanship of famous artists like Dürer and Cranach, and—not least—the support of many musicians and composers were responsible for the spreading of the thoughts of Reformation. But while Luther gave an important place to music, Zwingli and Calvin were much more skeptical. Music, especially sacred music, constituted a problem because it was tightly connected with Catholic liturgical and aesthetic traditions. Reformers had to think about the place music could have in worship and about the function of music in secular life. (M) Markus Rathey

REL 675b, Baptism and Eucharist in Ecumenical Dialogue This course engages students in recent conversations around the theology and practice of baptism and eucharist. Beginning with the 1982 World Council of Churches document Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry, we read texts that have emerged from ecumenical sacramental dialogues in the past three decades and discuss major issues such as mutual recognition of baptism, patterns of Christian initiation, who may administer the sacraments, and open communion. (W) Melanie Ross

REL 677b, Natural Disasters in the Christian Tradition: Ritual and Theological Responses Natural disasters are uniquely productive sites of ritual action and theological reflection, cutting to the core of a group’s identity and threatening the stability of theological systems. In the Christian tradition, natural disasters have been critical moments in which the relationship among humans, God, and the world are negotiated, both in ritual action and theological reflection. This seminar explores natural disasters in the Christian tradition by examining ritual and theological responses to environmental catastrophe from early Christianity to the present. The questions raised by the course are: How does environmental instability affect the practice and theory of Christianity? What continuities and discontinuities can be seen in Christian responses to natural disasters across time and space? What resources can the history of disaster responses provide for contemporary religious practice? Students are expected to participate actively in class discussions and write a 10–12-page research paper related to the themes of the course. Students present their work to the class, conference style, in the final two weeks of class. (W) Mark Roosien

REL 682a, Foundations of Christian Worship This is a core course in Liturgical Studies. The course focuses on theological and historical approaches to the study of Christian worship, with appropriate attention to cultural context and contemporary issues. The first part of the course seeks to familiarize students with the foundations of communal, public prayer in the Christian tradition (such as its roots in Hebrew Scripture and the New Testament; its Trinitarian source and direction; its ways of figuring time, space, and human embodiment; its use of language, music, the visual arts, etc.). The second part offers a sketch of historical developments, from earliest Christian communities to present times. In addition, select class sessions focus on questions of overall importance for liturgical life, such as the relationship between gender differences and worship life, and the contemporary migration of liturgical practices into cyberspace. (W) Melanie Ross

REL 683a, The Liturgy, Ritual, and Chant of Medieval England (Sarum Use) This team-taught interdisciplinary travel seminar focuses on the rites, ceremonies, and music of the Use of Sarum (Salisbury), which was the predominant form of Christian worship in late medieval England. With particular attention to Salisbury Cathedral, as well as to surviving texts and material evidence pertaining to that foundation, it explores how liturgy was cultivated, documented, and experienced in the High Middle Ages. It considers the ritual intersections of community, architectural space, visual decoration, sound, movement, and written text. It also considers the significance of Sarum Use in the formation of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer and, more recently, as a resource for liturgical revival and renewal. (W, M) Bryan Spinks, Henry Parkes

REL 685b/MUS 518b, In the Face of Death: Worship, Music, Art Given the breadth of the subject matter, this course attends to a broad spectrum of themes related to ritual, music, and art “in the face of death,” but has to do so quite selectively. Readings of historical sources themselves (textual and nontextual), scholarly research into past practices surrounding dying and death, and analysis of contemporary practices form the core materials. The course is shaped by three foci of inquiry in the realm of ritual, music, and art as they relate to (1) those who have died, (2) those who are dying, i.e., facing imminent death, and (3) the confrontation with one’s own finitude, mortality, and dying. The Christian tradition holds rich resources and insights for all three of these subject matters. The course creates space for a nuanced reflection on this tradition, as both backdrop and resource for contemporary engagement. (W, M) Teresa Berger, Markus Rathey

REL 687a, The Books of Common Prayer A historical introduction to Anglican liturgical tradition from the sixteenth century to the present. After considering the origins and development of the first Books of Common Prayer during the Reformation, the course traces the English and American prayer book tradition, including the impact of the Tractarian and Liturgical Movements. The later part of the course includes the 1979 Book of Common Prayer and its supplementary materials, as well as the history of prayer book revision across the Anglican Communion in the twentieth century and to the present. (W) Bryan Spinks

REL 688a, Catholic Liturgy This course offers an introduction to Roman Catholic liturgical traditions and practices. Given the breadth of the subject matter (2,000 years of history; complex dogmatic developments; numerous rites, rituals, and rhythms; contemporary tensions), the course attempts to range broadly, yet has to do so quite selectively. One focus is on key liturgical documents of the past hundred years. And throughout the course, attention is paid to the broader cultural realities in which worship always finds itself, e.g., gender constructions, ethnic identities, and, more recently, media developments (for example, the migration of Catholic liturgical practices into cyberspace). REL 682, concurrent or completed, will be an asset. (W) Teresa Berger

REL 690a, Liturgical Theology This seminar proposes for scholarly inquiry key texts and themes in theological reflections on Christian worship. We probe some of the voices that initially defined the field in the twentieth century, asking: What is “theological” about this reflection on worship? How is the relationship between Christian faith and cultural context understood? What has been occluded in most traditional definitions of “liturgical theology”? Who is absent, and who cannot be rendered visible, within the traditional framework? We also keep our eyes open to theologies of worship embedded in actual, local congregational practices. These practices are integrated into the work of the seminar through visits to distinctly different worshipping communities during the course of the term. (W) Melanie Ross

REL 747a, Islamic Art and Architecture in the Mediterranean This course surveys the history of Islamic cultures through their rich material expressions beginning from the time of the Prophet Muhammed in the seventh century to the present and extending across the Mediterranean from Spain to Syria. The course aims to familiarize students with the major periods, regions, monuments, and media of the Islamic cultures around the Mediterranean; and with basic principles of Islam as they pertain to the visual arts, and in particular their interactions with the Christian world. It discusses architecture (mosques, madrasas, mausolea, etc.) as well as works of art in various media (calligraphy, illuminated manuscripts, textiles, ceramics, etc.) within both the Islamic and the larger, universal, and cross-cultural contexts. (A) Örgü Dalgiç

REL 756a, The Cult of Mary: Early Christian and Byzantine Art This course examines the origins and development of the veneration of Mary as the Mother of God, focusing specifically on the treatment of Mary in the visual and material culture of early Christianity and Byzantium. Its aim is to introduce students to key points in the history of the cult through the close study of images preserved on a range of objects in different media (including frescoes, glassware, sculpture, coins, textiles, mosaic), made for a variety of purposes. This visual material is analyzed in conjunction with relevant literary, theological, and liturgical evidence for the development of the cult. It is designed as a seminar for students who have interest or background in the material, textual, and religious culture of early Christianity. (A) Vasileios Marinis, Felicity Harley

REL 801a or b, Marquand Chapel Choir 1 credit per term. Nathaniel Gumbs

REL 802a or b, Marquand Gospel and Inspirational Choir ½ credit per term. Mark Miller

REL 902b, Literary Appropriations: Writers and Philosophers in Conversation This course examines the relationship between literary authors and the philosophers (and theologians) who influenced them. In addition to exploring philosophical influences in the literary work, as a way of illuminating our understanding of it, the course considers how the literary work helps us understand the points the philosophers are making. We proceed with five pairs of conversations, each of which form two seminar sessions. These paired conversations include Plato and Iris Murdoch, Duns Scotus and Gerard Manley Hopkins, Julian of Norwich (with some reference to Karl Barth) and T.S. Eliot, Søren Kierkegaard and Walker Percy, and John Calvin and Marilynne Robinson. The course also features special guest lecturers for some sessions. Previous experience in the study of literature and/or philosophy or theology would be helpful background. (A) John Hare, David Mahan

REL 912a/MUS 672a, Sacred Music: Unity and Diversity What is “sacred music”? The answer depends on the individual perspective, denominational affiliation, and also personal musical taste. The course takes an ethnographic approach and explores the use, understanding, and function of sacred music in different local congregations in New Haven. Work in the classroom provides the theoretical and methodological basis, while students each visit one local congregation from a denomination different from their own over several weeks. Students observe the musical practices and engage with members of the clergy and community about “the sacred in music” and the function of music in worship and devotional life. A particular focus of the course is on music that does not represent the Western musical canon. Students conduct and evaluate their research during the term and present their results in a small symposium at the end of the term. (M) Markus Rathey

REL 943a, Performance behind Bars: Sacred Music, Sacred Texts, and Social Justice The course meets in a maximum-security prison where students collaborate with incarcerated men on the creation of performances of theater and music inspired by their collective reading of Dante’s Divine Comedy. Students learn how to apply their skills as writers, performers, or musicians to community service even as they learn about the American criminal justice system and its relevance to Dante’s poem from a unique perspective behind bars. (A) Ronald S. Jenkins

REL 945a/MDVL 663a, From House Churches to Medieval Cathedrals: Christian Art and Architecture to the End of Gothic This course examines the art associated with, or related to, Christianity from its origins to the end of Gothic. It analyzes major artistic monuments and movements in a variety of regions, paying particular attention to how art shapes and is shaped by the social and historical circumstances of the period and culture. The class considers art in diverse media, focusing on painting, sculpture, architecture, and decorative arts. Trips to the Yale Art Gallery and the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library are included. The course aims to familiarize students with key monuments of Christian architecture, sculpture, painting, and related arts, analyzing each within its particular sociocultural and theological perspective. The course stresses the importance of looking at works of art closely and in context and encourages students to develop skills of close observation and critical visual analysis. Additionally, students are encouraged to examine the ways parallel developments in Christian theology, dogma, and liturgy are influenced by art. Prerequisites: basic knowledge of Christian history and familiarity with the Bible. (A) Vasileios Marinis

REL 953a, Reading Poetry Theologically This course explores poetry as a form of theological discourse. Through close readings of individual poems and poetic sequences, students consider how the form as well as the subject matter of the poetry opens up new horizons for illuminating and articulating theological themes. Beginning with selections from Gerard Manley Hopkins and concluding with studies of contemporary poets, this class examines how modern and late-modern Anglo-American poets have created fresh embodiments of a Christian perspective and contributed to the public tasks of theology and the formation of a theological poetics. (A) David Mahan

REL 964b, Imagining the Apocalypse: Scripture, Fiction, Film This course explores the literary-theological and sociological facets of the apocalyptic, primarily through modern works of the imagination. Sessions begin with an introduction to various definitions and ideas of the apocalyptic, with special reference to biblical literature in the Hebrew Scriptures as well as the New Testament. From these distinctively theological/religious visions, in which God is the primary actor and God’s people figure as the main subjects, the course explores how that framework for the apocalyptic has undergone significant transformations in the literary imagination of late-modern, particularly Western, societies. Through such prose works as A Canticle for Leibowitz by Walter Miller, Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood, and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road, the course considers how literary portrayals of apocalypse contemplate themes that resonate with significant theological concerns. (A) David Mahan

REL 970a, Human Image: Classical and Biblical The perennial questions of who we are, of how we relate to the divine as well as to one another, are as ancient as literature itself. They are also the concerns of epic. The course moves from what is perhaps the oldest such story we have, Gilgamesh, to Homer’s Odyssey, Virgil’s Aeneid, Augustine’s Confessions, and Dante’s Inferno. Because these texts (with the exception of Gilgamesh) build on one another, we pay attention to continuities and reinvention as we move from one formulation of the human condition to another. Each (including Gilgamesh) includes the hero’s confrontation with the life to come, a vision of the afterlife that informs the text’s presentation of mortal existence in the here and now. (A) Peter Hawkins

REL 971a, Creative Faith: Poetry An assumption of the course is that the act of creating and the act of believing are intimately related. Indeed, for many artists they are inseparable. Students work on different forms of poetry, leading toward a longer final project that incorporates poetry and prose. We use a variety of prompts, imitation exercises, and small-group work to generate new material. This course is part seminar and part workshop. One third of the time is devoted to the reading and analysis of exemplary works of art, and the rest to discussing work done by students in the class. Enrollment limited to twelve students. Admission is at the discretion of the instructor. (A) Christian Wiman

REL 979a, Hymns and Their Music This is a survey course intended to familiarize students with the development of Christian hymnody from its beginnings to the present day as well as to foster their ability to analyze and evaluate the literary and theological properties of hymn texts, the musical properties of hymn tunes, and the effective use of hymns in a variety of worship contexts. Students’ progress toward these competencies will be objectively measured by their ability to (1) make a literary analysis of hymn texts in both technical and lay terms; (2) make a musical analysis of hymn tunes in both technical and lay terms; (3) make a biblical and theological analysis of hymn texts; (4) demonstrate comprehension of the contextual dimensions of hymnody in any given historic period and locale; (5) demonstrate familiarity with printed, electronic, and online resources for hymnological scholarship; and (6) suggest and demonstrate creative and effective ways of using hymns in congregations, including strategies for improving the singing of hymns. Prerequisites: ability to read music and familiarity with the mechanics of literary analysis. (M) Carl Pickens Daw, Jr.

REL 981b, Visual Controversies: Religion and the Politics of Vision This interdisciplinary seminar explores the destruction, censorship, and suppression of pictures and objects as motivated by religious convictions and practices in medieval Europe and in the United States from colonization to the present. In such episodes, religion does not operate in a vacuum but draws attention to other cultural pressure points concerning, for example, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. Already in the third century in Europe, and as early as the seventeenth century in the geographic area that is now the United States, individuals and groups practiced a range of behaviors we might meaningfully, though often figuratively, label “iconoclastic.” This course focuses most specifically on the emergence of Christian art and architecture in dialogue with (or in competition with) Greco-Roman religions and Islam, and on variations of Protestant Christianity. At the same time, the course also directs attention to case studies within Byzantine Orthodoxy, American Judaism, Islam, and Catholicism and looks to comparative situations and episodes of contention elsewhere in the world. Topics likely considered include the conversion of “pagan” temples into Christian churches in late antiquity; iconoclastic interventions on Christian floor mosaics in Palestine after the Muslim conquest; destruction of images during Byzantine Iconoclasm; attitudes toward images during the Protestant Reformation; American Puritan uses of a theology of figuration to justify genocide as an “iconoclastic” act in the Pequot War; Shaker constructions of elaborate visionary pictures as forms of “writing” rather than “art”; sculptor Rose Kohler’s determination to define and regulate “Jewish art” in her work with the National Council of Jewish Women; recent adjudication of the public display of the Ten Commandments or Christian nativity scenes; the Western contexts of the destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas; and international culture wars and the specific uses of “blasphemy” charges to restrict the visual practices of religions. Prerequisite: permission of the instructors. (A) Vasileios Marinis, Sally Promey

REL 991b, Shakespeare in Theological Context In England the Renaissance and the Reformation were simultaneous. During this period a robust international literature developed around a new religious anthropology fascinated by the felt life of the soul in the world, especially by memory, imagination, will, and, above all, by conscience. It was propagated by men of great learning in treatises, poetry, pamphlets, and sermons. This rich and neglected context sheds light on Shakespeare’s very searching characterizations, on the uniquely popular and elevated quality of his work, and on the receptivity of his audience. Milton virtually personifies this movement, a fact that bears on interpretation of Paradise Lost. The course focuses on Hamlet, King Lear, and Paradise Lost. (A) Marilynne Robinson

REL 992b, The Politics and Culture of Russian Sacred Art As devotional, material object, political symbol, and art commodity, Russia’s sacred art—the icon—has been revered as sacred, vilified as reactionary, embraced in revolt, displayed as masterpiece, discarded as obsolete, and destroyed as dangerous. Engaging the fields of religion, material and visual culture, ritual studies, and politics, this course examines the complex and multifaceted world of the Russian icon from its Byzantine roots to its contemporary reemergence in post-atheist, post-Soviet space. Consideration is given to the diverse meanings and functions of sacred imagery; iconographic vocation and craft; beauty and the sacred; devotions and rituals; political theology and national identity formation; the icon and avant-garde art; controversial images and protest culture. In addition to art and icons, sources include historical, devotional, theological, philosophical, and cinematic materials. No prerequisites. Undergraduates are welcome. (A) Vera Shevzov

REL 994b, Visual Cultures of the Sacred in the Pre-Columbian and Colonial Andes This seminar focuses on visual and material cultures of the Andes, with a special focus on modalities of the sacred from the Inca empire (ca. 1438–1534) to the period of Spanish colonial rule (1532–1821). The first part of the course focuses on pre-Hispanic expressions of the sacred through the built environment, exploring Inca practices of place-making through the construction of shrines and religious architecture. The remainder of the course considers the persistence of Andean ontologies in the articulation of localized, syncretic forms of Catholicism. We trace the literature, architecture, and visual and material cultures of the colonial encounter, from evangelization efforts of the sixteenth century to the adoption of “popular” and vernacular religious representations on the eve of Independence. The course focuses primarily on the Cuzco region of Peru due to its special status as capital of the Inca empire and cultural hub for indigenous artistic and religious expression from the colonial period into the present day. Nevertheless, we also touch on other areas of the Andean world, including modern-day Bolivia and northern Chile. We analyze a range of visual material, including textiles, paintings, architecture, sculpture, and manuscripts, to understand the intersections between religiosity and visual expression in the Andes. Readings are drawn from an array of disciplines, including art history, visual culture studies, literary studies, and anthropology. (A) Ananda Cohen-Aponte

ISM Courses Hosted in Other Departments

HSAR 529a/AMST 630a, Religion and Museums This interdisciplinary seminar focuses on the tangled relations of religion and museums, historically and in the present. What does it mean to “exhibit religion” in the institutional context of the museum? What practices of display might one encounter for this subject? What kinds of museums most frequently invite religious display? How is religion suited (or not) for museum exhibition and museum education? Permission of the instructor required; qualified undergraduates are welcome. Sally Promey

HSAR 533a, Sanctuaries in Syria and Phoenicia during the Roman Period This seminar explores the profound transformation of religious life that occurred in the region when it was under Roman rule, delving into topics such as possible cult continuity between the Iron Age and the Hellenistic and Roman periods, the creation of new deities, the roles of priests, aniconism and figural sculpture, and religious rituals that built upon ancient Near Eastern ones as well as new traditions. The approach is interdisciplinary: we examine ancient literary sources, especially Lucian’s De Dea Syria, inscriptions, architecture, sculpture, wall paintings, coins, and all sorts of votive dedications. Our focus is both on large regional sanctuaries that attracted worshippers from far and wide and small local sanctuaries linked closely to cities and villages throughout the region. Major sanctuaries including those of Bel at Palmyra (destroyed in 2015), Jupiter Heliopolitanus at Baalbek, Artemis at Gerasa, Jupiter Dolichenus at Doliche, and Atargatis at Hierapolis are covered. Smaller ones include those at Niha, Yammoune, and Yanouh in modern Lebanon and the temples, house-church, and synagogue at Dura-Europos in eastern Syria. The opportunity to examine material from Dura-Europos in the collection of the Yale Art Gallery firsthand is unparalleled and forms an important part of the course. Blair Fowlkes Childs

HSAR 592b, Art of the Chora Monastery The greatest monument of late Byzantine painting, the early fourteenth-century mosaics and frescoes of the Chora Monastery in Istanbul, were the subject of a massive four-volume publication during the 1970s. The field has changed significantly since then, but the art of the Chora has not been fully reexamined and brought into ongoing discussions about art, social context, the activities of the donor Theodore Metochites, and the subsequent history of the monument and its artists. The course is both an introduction to late Byzantine painting and an investigation into these and other topics. Vasileios Marinis, Robert Nelson

MUSI 350a, History of Western Music: Middle Ages and Renaissance A detailed investigation of the history of musical style from A.D. 900 to 1600. Henry Parkes

MUSI 438a, Emotions and Sacred Music in the Early Modern World In this class, students analyze the ways in which music, religion, and emotions intersected in the early modern world. By placing music in conversation with contemporary theories of emotion, this class provides methods and approaches for analyzing historical emotional meanings as they were forged vis-à-vis the musical arts. Students survey a number of contemporary emotion-theories; address emotional meaning in music roughly from the height of the Reformation to the end of the Thirty Years War (ca. 1555–1648); and consider sacred music of the latter half of the seventeenth century to approximately the height of the Enlightenment (ca. 1650–1776). While European Christian music forms the core repertoire examined in this course, sacred Jewish music and music of the Americas are also discussed. Other topics for discussion include communal emotion in congregational song, the affectivity of sung prayer, the psalms as emotional models, mystical love and the Song of Songs, and musical rhetoric. Thomas Marks