Courses Taught by Institute Faculty, 2018–2019

See the bulletins of the School of Music and the Divinity School for full course listings and degree requirements. Courses listed here may be cross-listed in other schools or departments. Information is current as of July 1, 2018. An updated list is available online at http://ism.yale.edu.

The letter “a” following the course number denotes the fall term; the letter “b” denotes the spring term.

Courses fulfilling the distribution requirements for Institute students pursuing the M.Div. are indicated with a letter representing the subject area: W (Worship), M (Music), and/or A (Visual Arts or Literature). In the School of Music, courses designated NP are nonperformance courses. Courses designated P/F will be graded on a Pass/Fail basis. See the Schools’ respective bulletins for full explanation.

Music Courses

MUS 506a–b, 606a–b, Lyric Diction for Singers 2 credits per term. A language course designed specifically for the needs of singers. Intensive work on pronunciation, grammar, and literature throughout the term. French, German, English, Italian, Russian, and Latin are offered in alternating terms. Required. Faculty

MUS 507a–b, 607a–b, Vocal Repertoire for Singers 2 credits per term. A performance-oriented course that in successive terms surveys the French mélodie, German Lied, and Italian, American, and English art song. Elements of style, language, text, and presentation are emphasized. Required. Faculty

MUS 509a–b, 609a–b, 709a–b, Art Song Coaching for Singers 1 credit per term. Individual private coaching in the art song repertoire, in preparation for required recitals. Students are coached on such elements of musical style as phrasing, rubato, and articulation, and in English, French, Italian, German, and Spanish diction. Students are expected to bring their recital accompaniments to coaching sessions as their recital times approach. Tomoko Nakayama

MUS 511b, Music before 1750 4 credits. NP. Group B. An overview of music before 1750 within its cultural and social contexts. The goal of the course is knowledge of the repertoire representing the major styles, genres, and composers of the period. Course requirements include six short essays, a final research project, and a final exam. Markus Rathey

MUS 515a,b, Improvisation at the Organ I 2 credits. This course in beginning organ improvisation explores a variety of harmonization techniques, with a strong focus on formal structure (binary and ternary forms, rondo, song form). Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to seven minutes on a submitted theme. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 519a–b, 619a–b, 719a–b, Colloquium 1 credit per term. NP. P/F. Participation in seminars led by faculty and guest lecturers on topics concerning theology, music, worship, and related arts. Required of all Institute of Sacred Music students. Martin D. Jean

MUS 522a–b, 622a–b, 722a–b, Acting for Singers 1 credit per term. Designed to address the specialized needs of the singing actor. Studies include technique in character analysis, together with studies in poetry as it applies to art song literature. Class work is extended in regular private coaching. ISM students are required to take two terms in their second year. Ethan Heard (ISM), Christopher Murrah

MUS 531a–b, 631a–b, Repertory Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A reading chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. The chorus reads, studies, and sings a wide sampling of choral literature. Marguerite L. Brooks

MUS 532a–b, 632a–b, Repertory Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Repertory Chorus, preparing and conducting a portion of a public concert each term. Open only to choral conducting majors. Marguerite L. Brooks

MUS 535a–b, 635a–b, Recital Chorus—Voice 2 credits per term. A chorus open by audition and conducted by graduate choral conducting students. It serves as the choral ensemble for four to five degree recitals per year. Marguerite L. Brooks

MUS 536a–b, 636a–b, Recital Chorus—Conducting 2 credits per term. Second- and third-year students in the graduate choral conducting program work with the Recital Chorus, preparing and conducting their degree recitals. Open to choral conducting majors only. Marguerite L. Brooks

MUS 539b, The Motet in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 4 credits. NP. Group B. The motet was the most important vocal genre in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Composers such as Josquin Desprez, Orlando di Lasso, and Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina led the genre to its peak. In the seventeenth century, however, the genre underwent a transition. Modern genres like concerto, monody, and solo song employed, on the one hand, techniques that were developed in the motet (e.g., counterpoint), yet on the other hand, they claimed the place of the motet as the leading vocal genre in church music. The course outlines the history of the motet in the crucial time between its peak in the sixteenth century (starting with Josquin) and its transition (or one might even say dissolution) into other genres in the seventeenth century (until Bach). The course combines a general overview with an in-depth study of selected composers. In addition to this analytical approach, the course looks at the religious context of this music historical change of paradigm, as the transition from polyphonic music in the sixteenth century to soloistic genres in the seventeenth coincided with a change in piety around the turn of the century. Markus Rathey

MUS 540a–b, 640a–b, 740a–b, 840a–b, Individual Instruction in the Major 4 credits per term. Individual instruction of one hour per week throughout the academic year, for majors in performance, conducting, and composition. Faculty

MUS 544a–b, 644a–b, 744a–b, Seminar in the Major 2 credits per term. An examination of a wide range of problems relating to the area of the major. Specific requirements may differ by department. At the discretion of each department, seminar requirements can be met partially through off-campus field trips and/or off-campus fieldwork, e.g., performance or teaching. Required of all School of Music students except pianists who take 533, 633, 733. Faculty

MUS 546a–b, 646a–b, 746a–b, Yale Camerata 2 credits per term. Open to all members of the University community by audition, the Yale Camerata presents several performances throughout the year that explore choral literature from all musical periods. Members of the ensemble should have previous choral experience and be willing to devote time to the preparation of music commensurate with the Camerata’s vigorous rehearsal and concert schedule. Marguerite L. Brooks

MUS 549a, Early Music Repertoire for Singers 2 credits. A survey of solo and chamber repertoire (song, madrigal, cantata, opera, oratorio, motet) from the early seventeenth century to the mid-eighteenth century. Related topics include performance practice, ornamentation, national styles, related instrumental music, research, and original sources and their modern transcriptions. Assignments emphasize practical applications such as composing ornaments, finding repertoire, and creating new editions. Offered every other year. Jeffrey Grossman

MUS 571a–b, 671a–b, 771a–b, Yale Schola Cantorum 1 credit per term. Specialist chamber choir for the development of advanced ensemble skills and expertise in demanding solo roles (in music before 1750 and from the last one hundred years). Enrollment required for voice majors enrolled through the Institute of Sacred Music. David Hill

MUS 586a, The Oratorio in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 4 credits. NP. Group B. Opera and oratorio emerged almost simultaneously as large-scale musical genres at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In spite of significant differences (staging, subjects, etc.), the two genres depend on the same musical devices as recitative, aria, and movements for choir. However, the oratorio is more than just the sacred “sister” of the opera. It grew out of the tradition of the medieval religious drama, the tradition of chanting biblical texts during the liturgy, the sacred madrigal, and extra-liturgical devotional practices. The course traces the history of the oratorio from its beginnings to the time of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel. It explores the social and religious functions of the oratorio over a span of some 150 years and analyzes the compositional techniques employed by the composers to create musical drama without being able to stage it. Markus Rathey

MUS 594a–b, Vocal Chamber Music 1 credit. This performance-based class requires a high level of individual participation each week. Grades are based on participation in and preparation for class, and two performances of the repertoire learned. Attendance is mandatory. Occasional weekend sessions and extra rehearsals during production weeks can be expected. Students are expected to learn quickly and must be prepared to tackle a sizeable amount of repertoire. James Taylor

MUS 595a–b, 695b, Performance Practice for Singers 1 credit per term. Fall term: An introduction to the major issues of historically informed performance, including notation, use of modern editions, and performance styles. Spring term: Advanced exploration of notation, performance styles, and ornamentation in specific repertoire. Open to conductors and instrumentalists with permission of the instructor. Jeffrey Grossman

MUS 605a, Performing Oratorio: A Look at the Major Repertoire 2 credits. This class provides a practical, performance-based introduction to the major oratorio repertoire from Vivaldi to Adams. Specific works are studied from a literary and musical point of view, with weekly presentation of prepared selections. Issues of editions, text setting, musical style, theatrical presentation, and performance history are discussed, while working on excerpts (arias and ensembles) from the repertoire list. The conductor/soloist relationship, and the relative musical requirements of each in various repertoires, are explored. Open to singers, conductors, instrumentalists, and composers. Open to undergraduates (half-credit) with permission of the instructor. Judith Malafronte

MUS 615a,b, Improvisation at the Organ II 2 credits. This course explores modal improvisation, focusing on the composition techniques of Charles Tournemire and Olivier Messiaen. Students learn to improvise five-movement chant-based suites (Introit-Offertoire-Elevation-Communion-Pièce Terminale), versets, and a variety of free works using late-twentieth-century language. Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to seven minutes on a submitted theme. Prerequisite: MUS 515. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 656a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills I 2 credits. In this course, students gain a deeper understanding of and appreciation for musical genres, both those familiar to them and those different from their own, and learn basic techniques for their application in church service playing. Students learn to play hymns, congregational songs, service music, and anthems from a variety of sources, including music from the liturgical and free church traditions, including the Black Church experience. Hymn playing, with an emphasis on methods of encouraging congregational singing, is the principal focus of the organ instruction, but there is also instruction in chant and anthem accompaniment, including adapting a piano reduction to the organ. In the gospel style, beginning with the piano, students are encouraged to play by ear, using their aural skills in learning gospel music. This training extends to the organ, in the form of improvised introductions and varied accompaniments to hymns of all types. We seek to accomplish these goals by active participation and discussion in class. When not actually playing in class, students are encouraged to sing to the accompaniment of the person at the keyboard, to further their experience of singing with accompaniment, and to give practical encouragement to the person playing. Prerequisite: graduate-level organ and piano proficiency. Walden Moore

MUS 657a, Liturgical Keyboard Skills II 2 credits. The subject matter is the same as for MUS 656, but some variety is offered in the syllabus on a two-year cycle to allow second-year students to take the course without duplicating all of the means by which the playing techniques are taught. Walden Moore

MUS 664a, The Symphony and the Sacred in the Nineteenth Century 4 credits. NP. Group B. The course describes the development of the metaphysical interpretation of music in the nineteenth century and shows how composers in the late eighteenth century (e.g., J. Haydn and J.M. Kraus), the first half of the nineteenth century (e.g., Beethoven and Mendelssohn), and the late nineteenth century have used quotations and allusions to create a “religious mood” in their symphonies. Markus Rathey

MUS 715a,b, Improvisation at the Organ III 2 credits. This course explores the improvisation of full organ symphony in four movements, Tryptique (Rondo-Aria-Theme/variations), improvisation on visual images, text-based improvisation, and silent film. Classes typically are made up of two students, for a one-hour lesson on Mondays. The term culminates with an improvised recital, open to the public. In this recital, each student improvises for up to ten minutes on a submitted theme. Prerequisite: MUS 615. Jeffrey Brillhart

MUS 815a,b, Improvisation at the Organ IV 2 credits. This course explores the improvisation of contrapuntal forms including partimento fugue, stylus fantasticus, fugue d’école, and choral preludes. Prerequisite: MUS 715. Jeffrey Brillhart

Divinity Courses

Courses are 3 credits unless otherwise indicated.

REL 3910a–b, Colloquium ½ credit per term. P/F. Participation in seminars led by faculty and guest lecturers on topics concerning theology, music, worship, and related arts. Required of all Institute of Sacred Music students. Martin D. Jean

REL 632b, Theology through Music In this course, we examine different approaches to doing Christian theology through music. As we read, discuss, and analyze selected works, primarily by systematic/constructive theologians of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, we grapple with the following questions: What is the difference between theologies of music and theology through music? How have theologians used music to help them theologize (e.g., using musical metaphors, borrowing musical terminology, illustrating theological concepts with musical examples, adopting music as a mode within which to theologize)? What, if anything, does a deep engagement with music permit theologians to do that they cannot otherwise accomplish? How do sociocultural location, theological perspective, and aesthetic frameworks interact in shaping particular music-driven theologies? What are the limitations of doing theology through music? Familiarity with musical terminology and experience reading Christian theological texts are helpful. (M) Awet Andemicael

REL 651a, Digital Media, Liturgy, and Theology This course inquires into ecclesial practices that have migrated online and are digitally mediated, especially those of prayer and worship. In recent years, both very old and entirely new liturgical practices have flourished in digital social space, from the live streaming of worship services to digital prayer chapels, virtual choirs, online pilgrimages, and digitally mediated devotions such as daily prayer via tweets or “pray-as-you-go” apps. Some communities have experimented with so-called cyber-baptisms and cyber-communions. And digital social space hosts communities of faith that exist only online, for example, in web-based interactive virtual reality environments. This course brings the tools and insights of new media theories, liturgical studies, and constructive theology to the inquiry into these ecclesial practices. Prerequisite: at least one liturgy and/or theology course (previous or concurrent) is highly desirable. (W) Kathryn Tanner, Teresa Berger

REL 682a, Foundations of Christian Worship This is a core course in Liturgical Studies. The course focuses on theological and historical approaches to the study of Christian worship, with appropriate attention to cultural context and contemporary issues. The first part of the course seeks to familiarize students with the foundations of communal, public prayer in the Christian tradition (such as its roots in Hebrew Scripture and the New Testament; its Trinitarian source and direction; its ways of figuring time, space, and human embodiment; its use of language, music, the visual arts, etc.). The second part offers a sketch of historical developments, from earliest Christian communities to present times. In addition, select class sessions focus on questions of overall importance for liturgical life, such as the relationship between gender differences and worship life, and the contemporary migration of liturgical practices into cyberspace. (W) Teresa Berger

REL 683b, The Liturgy, Ritual, and Chant of Medieval England (Sarum Use) This team-taught interdisciplinary travel seminar focuses on the rites, ceremonies, and music of the Use of Sarum (Salisbury), which was the predominant form of Christian worship in late medieval England. With particular attention to Salisbury Cathedral, as well as to surviving texts and material evidence pertaining to that foundation, it explores how liturgy was cultivated, documented, and experienced in the High Middle Ages. It considers the ritual intersections of community, architectural space, visual decoration, sound, movement, and written text. It also considers the significance of Sarum Use in the formation of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer and, more recently, as a resource for liturgical revival and renewal. (W, M) Bryan D. Spinks, Henry Parkes

REL 697b, Eucharistic Prayers and Eucharistic Theology This course looks at the broad structural development of the Eucharistic liturgy at certain key epochs in the history of the Christian church. However, its main focus is on the central prayer of the rite, the Eucharistic Prayer or Great Thanksgiving. The course examines the theories put forward regarding the prayer’s possible origins and its historical development, its treatment by the various sixteenth- and seventeenth-century reformers, and attitudes toward it during subsequent epochs to the present. The course reflects on the theologies expressed in this prayer genre and considers the corresponding sacramental theology in doctrinal writings on the Eucharist. Prerequisites: ideally, students should have taken REL 682 and already be acquainted with Eucharistic (Lord’s Supper) liturgies, particularly the Great Thanksgiving over the bread and wine. (W) Bryan D. Spinks

REL 731a, Origins of Christian Art in Late Antiquity This course examines the origins and development of Christian art in the visual culture of Roman late antiquity, ca. 200–ca. 500 CE. Its aim is to introduce students to key developments in the history of Christian art through the close study of images preserved on a range of objects in different media (including frescoes, glassware, sculpture, coins, textiles, mosaic) made for a variety of purposes. The course involves visits to the Yale Art Gallery and focuses on the importance of situating objects within their larger social and cultural context through the analysis of primary source evidence, which may include archaeological, iconographic, epigraphic, and textual sources (Jewish, early Christian, and other contemporary Roman texts). Topics include the literary and archaeological evidence for early Christian attitudes to visual representation; contexts of manufacture; the social and economic basis of patronage; Roman political influence on Christian iconography; development of new genres of imagery; and the role of imperial patronage in the transformation of civic spaces. (A) Vasileios Marinis, Felicity Harley

REL 747a, Islamic Art and Architecture in the Mediterranean This course surveys the history of Islamic cultures through their rich material expressions beginning from the time of the Prophet Muhammed in the seventh century to the present and extending across the Mediterranean from Spain to Syria. The course aims to familiarize students with the major periods, regions, monuments, and media of the Islamic cultures around the Mediterranean; and with basic principles of Islam as they pertain to the visual arts, and in particular their interactions with the Christian world. It discusses architecture (mosques, madrasas, mausolea, etc.) as well as works of art in various media (calligraphy, illuminated manuscripts, textiles, ceramics, etc.) within both the Islamic and the larger, universal, and cross-cultural contexts. (A) Örgü Dalgiç

REL 801a or b, Marquand Chapel Choir 1 credit per term. Nathaniel Gumbs

REL 802a or b, Marquand Gospel Choir ½ credit per term. Mark Miller

REL 825a, Music Skills and Vocal Development for Parish Ministry This course is designed to help those training for lay and ordained ministry to improve their musical and vocal skills as part of the larger process of their transformation into living instruments of God. The course is comprised of three components: skill development, spiritual formation, and theological reflection. (M) Awet Andemicael

REL 933b, Poetry and Faith This course is designed to look at issues of faith through the lens of poetry. With some notable exceptions, the course concentrates on modern poetry—that is, poetry written between 1850 and 2013. Inevitably the course also looks at poetry through the lens of faith, but a working assumption of the course is that a poem is, for a reader (it’s more complicated for a writer), art first and faith second. “Faith” in this course generally means Christianity, and that is the primary context for reading the poems. But the course also engages with poems from other faith traditions, as well as with poems that are wholly secular and even adamantly anti-religious. (A) Christian Wiman

REL 935a, Religious Lyric in Britain This is a survey of the religious lyric in Britain from the seventeenth century (Donne and Herbert) to the present (Michael Symmons Roberts and Malcolm Guite). Poets to be read include those who address God from a standpoint of faith (e.g., Hopkins and R.S. Thomas) and those who do not (e.g., Hardy, Larkin, and Stevie Smith). Working within a British framework, the class traces a literary tradition that has a certain cultural and religious (i.e., Christian) coherence. By choosing lyric poetry, students look at short, nonnarrative, often emotive work that stresses the speaker’s personal thoughts or feelings. Whereas secular lyric often concentrates on human love, with all its ebb and flow, the religious lyric is concerned with the divine-human relationship—its presence and/or its absence. The class’s study mixes close textual analysis with attention to larger theological issues. (A) Peter S. Hawkins

REL 943a, Performance behind Bars: Sacred Music, Sacred Texts, and Social Justice The course meets in a maximum-security prison where students collaborate with incarcerated men on the creation of performances of theater and music inspired by their collective reading of Dante’s Divine Comedy. Students learn how to apply their skills as writers or performing artists to a real-world situation and gain knowledge of the American criminal justice system and its relevance to Dante’s poem from a unique perspective behind bars. (A) Ronald S. Jenkins

REL 945a, From House Churches to Medieval Cathedrals: Christian Art and Architecture from the Third Century to the End of Gothic This course examines the art associated with, or related to, Christianity from its origins to the end of Gothic. It analyzes major artistic monuments and movements in a variety of regions, paying particular attention to how art shapes and is shaped by the social and historical circumstances of the period and culture. The class considers art in diverse media, focusing on painting, sculpture, architecture, and decorative arts. Trips to the Yale Art Gallery and the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library are included. The course aims to familiarize students with key monuments of Christian architecture, sculpture, painting, and related arts, analyzing each within its particular sociocultural and theological perspective. The course stresses the importance of looking at works of art closely and in context and encourages students to develop skills of close observation and critical visual analysis. Additionally, students are encouraged to examine the ways parallel developments in Christian theology, dogma, and liturgy are influenced by art. Prerequisites: basic knowledge of Christian history and familiarity with the Bible. (A) Vasileios Marinis

REL 947b, Christian Art and Architecture from the Renaissance to the Present This course examines art associated with, or related to, Christianity from the thirteenth to the twenty-first century. It analyzes major artistic monuments and movements in a variety of regions, paying particular attention to how art shapes and is shaped by the social and historical circumstances of the period and culture. The course aims to familiarize students with key monuments of Christian architecture, sculpture, painting, and related arts, examining each within its particular sociocultural and theological perspective. The course stresses the importance of looking at works of art closely and in context and encourages student to develop skills of close observation and critical visual analysis. Additionally, students are encouraged to examine the ways developments in Christian theology, doctrine, and liturgical practice interact with visual and material arts. Regular readings from the text are complemented by in-depth class lectures and discussions. Special attention is given to examples of Christian art and architecture in the greater New Haven area. (A)

REL 950a, Dante’s Journey to God I This is the first term of a yearlong course on the Divine Comedy in which we read the entire text in the light of what it purports to be—a journey toward the vision of God. Such an approach does not mean dissolving the narrative into allegory or ignoring literary considerations in favor of theology; it means taking full account of the poem as a path with a divine destination. Special interest is paid to how Dante transforms his pagan sources, how deeply he assimilates the Bible and its interpretative traditions, and how boldly he attempts to establish his own text as a poema sacro (sacred poem). (A) Peter S. Hawkins

REL 951b, Dante’s Journey to God II This is the second term of a yearlong course on the Divine Comedy in which we read the entire text in the light of what it purports to be—a journey toward the vision of God. Such an approach does not mean dissolving the narrative into allegory or ignoring literary considerations in favor of theology; it means taking full account of the poem as a path with a divine destination. Special interest is paid to how Dante transforms his pagan sources, how deeply he assimilates the Bible and its interpretative traditions, and how boldly he attempts to establish his own text as a poema sacro (sacred poem). Prerequisite: enrollment limited to students who have successfully completed REL 950. (A) Peter S. Hawkins

REL 956b, Faith, Doubt, and Redemption in Twentieth–Twenty-First-Century Fiction The pressures of secularization and other challenges in late-modern society have provoked widespread reconsideration of traditional expressions of faith. Notions of God, salvation, redemption, even of faith itself, are subject to scrutiny by religious and nonreligious people alike. With special reference to Christian faith, the course examines this phenomenon through the literary vision expressed in the fiction of three modern writers—Flannery O’Connor, Walker Percy, and Don DeLillo—considering the theological and literary implications of their work to modern quests for redemption. (A) David Mahan

REL 960a, Communities of Chant An exploration of the social and cultural dimensions of liturgical chant in Western Christianity, focusing on the so-called Gregorian tradition as received from Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. Introductory lectures furnish students with the necessary tools, vocabulary, and methodologies for navigating the field of chant history. The course then proceeds by way of six diverse case studies, historical and ethnographic, each of which is designed to shed light on the complex and rich interdependencies of chant, community, history, and identity. This course does not expect musical literacy, prior experience of chant, or knowledge of Latin. Singing ability is a welcome bonus. (M) Henry Parkes

REL 963a, Literature of Trauma How can literary art respond to extreme suffering, particularly when it involves the trauma of large-scale violence and oppression, which seems to defy aesthetic response? How can literary artists fulfill a summons to bear witness and remember without vitiating the apparent senselessness of human atrocity? How do theological responses to trauma interact with those made by creative writers? This course examines these and other questions through the works of poets and novelists responding to the traumas of war (WWI poetry), genocide (Holocaust poetry and fiction), historic violence and oppression (African American, East European, and Latin American poetry and fiction), and the end of the world (apocalyptic fiction). This is not a course in clinical psychology or pastoral theology. The class focuses on the literary-critical and theological issues that arise through close reading of these texts. (A) David Mahan

REL 971a, Creative Faith: A Writing Course An assumption of the course is that the act of creating and the act of believing are intimately related. Indeed for many artists they are inseparable. Students work on some form of “spiritual” prose. This may take the form of spiritual autobiography, but it might also be more outward-focused, employing criticism, biography, or other method. This course is part seminar and part workshop. Half of the time is devoted to the reading and analysis of exemplary works of art, and the other half to discussing work done by students in the class. (A) Christian Wiman

REL 979a, Hymns and Their Music This is a survey course intended to familiarize students with the development of Christian hymnody from its beginnings to the present day as well as to foster their ability to analyze and evaluate the literary and theological properties of hymn texts, the musical properties of hymn tunes, and the effective use of hymns in a variety of worship contexts. Students’ progress toward these competencies will be objectively measured by their ability to (1) make a literary analysis of hymn texts in both technical and lay terms; (2) make a musical analysis of hymn tunes in both technical and lay terms; (3) make a biblical and theological analysis of hymn texts; (4) demonstrate comprehension of the contextual dimensions of hymnody in any given historic period and locale; (5) demonstrate familiarity with printed, electronic, and online resources for hymnological scholarship; and (6) suggest and demonstrate creative and effective ways of using hymns in congregations, including strategies for improving the singing of hymns. (M) Carl Pickens Daw, Jr.

REL 982b, Performance of Text: Poetry of T.S. Eliot This course approaches the poetry of T.S.Eliot (1888–1965) both as literature to be studied and as texts to be performed. Although Eliot also wrote for the theater, we explore the dramatic power of his poetry, treating his often very difficult works not as puzzles to be solved but as states of mind and heart to be experienced as texts are vocalized and embodied. We begin with his early work and conclude with the last of his Four Quartets, “Little Gidding.” We are especially interested in Eliot’s religious development. Weekly class sessions combine textual analysis and oral interpretation. The course culminates in a performance on Friday evening, April 26, that incorporates work done in class week by week. Enrollment limited to twelve students, to be determined after the introductory session on Jan. 17, which all prospective students must attend. Because of the nature of the course, no absences allowed. (A) Peter S. Hawkins, Karin Coonrod

ISM Courses Hosted in Other Departments

EAST 405a/MUSI 476a/THST 326a, Chinese Opera This course introduces students to varieties of Chinese opera through plays, Chinese theories of music and acting, modern scholarship, and recorded media. Furthermore, students learn strategies to evaluate written and performed aspects of Chinese opera in a manner that can be extended to Western opera, film, and other performed genres. Permission required. Kelsey Seymour

MUSI 628a, Early Song Tradition in the Habsburg Spanish Empire This seminar explores the song tradition in the Hispanic world from the succession of the Catholic Monarchs through the reign of Charles II, the last Habsburg ruler of Spain—from approximately 1469 to 1700. Attention is given to manifestations of musical globalization and sources that reveal the circulation and transmission of Iberian musico-literary genres in the vast Spanish empire, including Portugal, Europe, the New World, and Asia. The course provides an introduction to the literary and musical sources of the Iberian song: from early poetic anthologies and songbooks, to villancicos’ manuscripts, chapbooks, printed vihuela and guitar tutor books, Iberian songs in manuscripts and printed collections of neighboring countries, early anthologies, catalogs and library collections, music and poetic treatises, and songs in dramas, novels, and other literary genres by authors such as Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, or Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. We also explore complex representations of Indians, African slaves, and Jewish conversos in relation to literary conventions and early modern ideas about religious devotion and racial difference. We approach these topics through a close engagement with materials in special collections and archives. Ireri Chávez-Bárcenas

RLST 344b, Death and the Afterlife in Chinese Cultures This seminar explores ideas surrounding death in China and Taiwan, including retribution, the afterlife, and ghosts in Chinese religious traditions. To investigate this, we turn to religious scriptures, mortuary items, documentaries, and scholarly writings, and ask ourselves the following questions: How do concepts of the afterlife reflect and affect the situations of the living? How do the living maintain a relationship with the dead? Kelsey Seymour

RLST 352a, Blackness and Mysticism This course focuses on the long history of Western constructions of the human as an enduring project of racialization. We consider the concepts mystic, mysticism, mystical, and how they announce the possibility for European personhood that is also modern global racialization. But we also consider alternatives to the European thought process, a way to think blackness and its relation to, its disruption of, these concepts. Ashon Crawley